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Classroom Management

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Transcript of Classroom Management

Classroom Management
Classroom Management 101
1. Classroom Management Definition and Role

2. Classroom Expectations and High Standards

3. Student Engagement

4. Teach Like a Champion Techniques

5. Classroom Management Systems

6. Managing Challenging Behaviors

Classroom Expectations
Few in number and concise
Positively framed
Developed together for ownership
Permanently posted
Consistently sticking to them and creating a classroom management system that addresses what happens when these are not followed and when they are

Student Engagement
Barriers to Engagement
Needs Not Being Met
Basic Human Needs
Emotional Needs
Social Stability
Personal Development
Everyone has these needs regardless of socioeconomic status, geographic location, ethnicity, etc.
Lesson Planning
Building an "Outcomes-Based" Lesson Plan
Classroom Management System
Christina Martinez-Williams, Urban Teachers Clinical Faculty, M.Ed.

Definition of Classroom Management
"Although there is no agreed-upon definition of classroom management, the framework offered by Evertson and Weinstein (2006) represents a current and widely accepted view. According to Evertson and Weinstein, classroom management has two distinct purposes:

Facets of Classroom Management
The authors identify five specific tasks that show classroom management is a multi-faceted activity. It extends beyond some of the more traditional behavior management techniques frequently recommended to deal with students with disruptive behavior. Specifically, they note that teachers should do the following:
Your Role
Power of Words
Natural Learning Theory (NLT)



But WHY...?
Why would I have us create these?
'It not only seeks to establish and sustain an orderly environment so students can engage in meaningful academic learning, it also aims to enhance student social and moral growth' (p. 4).
develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students
organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students' access to learning;
use group management methods that encourage student engagement with academic tasks;
promote the development of student social skill and self-regulation; and
use appropriate interventions to assist students who have behavior problems"

Hey Child
“I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”
- Maya Angelou
Conditions of Learning
Student Engagement
Concentric Circles Activity
Barriers to Student Engagement (cont.)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs

1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Belonging
4. Esteem
5. Self-Actualization

The lower level of needs need to be satisfied before the others
He says when a basic need is met, it no longer motivates you.
Barriers to Student Engagement (cont.)
Trauma and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
Dynamics of the Apprentices
Are there certain apprentices who positively/negatively influence the others toward/away from engagement?
How can you help them not to become barriers for others? How can you utilize them to increase engagement?
Student Engagement
What do you do when those currently engaged become disengaged?
How do you create a culture of not opting out?

Student Engagement
Relationship Building
Student Engagement
Student Ownership
Student Engagement
Student Engagement
Teacher's Role
Student Engagement
Teacher's Role (cont.)
4 Groups

Scribe: Take notes on what you read and the 3 points you will share.
Ref: Keeps track of time and Harmony - make sure everyone's ideas are heard

MC: Spokesperson for the group who shares the 3 points for each technique with the other group
Harmony: (only if 4 people in a group) makes sure everyone's ideas are heard; if 3 people, this is also the responsibility of Ref.
"No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship." Dr. James Comer
Respect from teachers and peers
Belief in student's potential for growth and learning
Schlossberg's Theory of Marginality and Mattering
High vs. Low Expectations on Students
How do expectations affect engagement?
Students find value in learning
Connect to their interests and the 'real world'
Construct learning together
Track their own progress
Goal setting
4 Elements of LPTM's Human Development System (HDS)
Purpose, Premise, Process & 4 Cs (Connect, Create, Contribute, Collaborate), and Decision-Making Tool
Student Interaction & Involvement
Goal of 100% Engagement
What do you do when you don't have that?
Clear, MVPT Directions or What to Do Directions
(Teach Like a Champion)
Movement, Voice, Participation, Time
Create a culture of error
Sense of urgency
Economy of language, hand signals, ways to get students' attention without raising your voice
Routines & Procedures
How students come in/leave
Help reduce lost instructional time
Seamless transitions
Student jobs
Teach Like a Champion Jigsaw
Examples: Threshold and Sweat the details
Positive Framing - Teach Like a Champion - Clip 19 - 22:36 - 24:55
Stand in the physical threshold of the door to the classroom to greet students as they come in with a handshake, look in the eyes, and a short greeting to engage with students individually and build rapport.
Set expectations for the day to the whole line at once and then any individual expectations. Students know what to do when they enter.
You can correct weak handshakes, lack of eye contact, and disheveled attire at the door and have the student go to the end of the line and try again or just try again.
Sweat the Details
Make it a point to pay close attention to the details of classroom procedures, students' work, and whatever you want students to do in a particular way, whatever you want them to make a habit.
Set high standard and expectations and create a method, procedure, or system around these habits, such as desks in rows, organizing materials, expectations for note-taking, uniform, etc.
Using these to create order and organization will decrease students' desire to push the envelope in more destructive ways.

5 Teach Like a Champion Techniques
Group 1: Positive Framing
Group 2: Precise Praise
Group 3: Warm/Strict & Emotional

Group 4: Joy Factor
Backwards Planning: Start with what you want your students to be able to know and do by the end of the "unit" and work backwards to how to teach that.
Have an overall plan for the whole unit, even if just a framework so you know where you are going and how you're going to get there
What are the learning objectives/outcomes you want to cover?
Learning Outcome: What students will be able to know and/or do after your teaching. SWiBAT: Students will be able to...
Determine how you are going to assess whether or not students met those learning outcomes.
Lesson Planning
Assessments: gathering information about what your students know and can do as a result of your teaching which informs your future teaching and knowledge of their learning.
FORMAL ASSESSMENTS - used to measure achievement against other students of the same grade level or age.
Standardized tests, such as the SAT/ACT
Essay tests
Criterion-referenced tests
INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS - used to measure what individual students know and are able to do and measure individual progress
Lesson Planning
Examples (of informal)
Tests and quizzes
Written Samples
Project-Based Assessments
Observations of an individual's independent or group work
Summative Assessments - measure what your students know and are able to do from what you taught throughout the entire unit
Which of LPTM's 7 Indicators of Success are you looking to build or see for the lesson and unit?
Which of the 4 Cs (Connect, Create, Contribute, and Celebrate) of the HDS are you working on?
For individual lessons, start with your learning outcome
Now develop your lesson moving forward toward that end goal and an assessment to determine if students met it
The Lesson Plan
Plan each step. Scripted lessons in beginning
What is your hook?
Introduce the learning outcome to the students at the beginning of the lesson
Do Now, Review, Lesson, Practice, Exit Ticket
Common Methods of Instruction
Gradual Release Method (I Do, We Do, You Do)
Performance tasks
Small group (plan roles)/whole group
Student-centered, interactive activities (e.g. turn and talk, jigsaw, concentric circles)
The Lesson Plan
Be mindful of...
Providing scaffolding: guiding students step by step toward full understanding of your objective
Use process/anchor charts
Pacing and build in wait time
Spiraling information
Checking for understanding
What students will do if they finish early and what everyone will do if you all finish the lesson early; maximize instructional time
Provide opportunities for students to be aware of and track their own progress
Assess prior knowledge
Determine how you will assess during the lesson
The Lesson Plan
Definition: "In differentiated instruction, teachers respond to students' readiness, instructional needs, interests and learning preferences and provide opportunities for students to work in varied instructional formats." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_instruction)
Identify individual student's needs (academic, social, learning style, physical, etc.) in order to meet learning outcomes
Teach to all learning styles (auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic) in every lesson if possible
Learning Style Inventory
Helps all students learn
(Wait time and check for understanding clips: http://teachlikeachampion.com/resources/sample-videos/)
Lesson Planning
Practice Perfect
Practice makes perfect and practice makes permanent
Making something routine allows space to make it an art
Move from good to great
The Lesson Plan
Turn and Talk Discussion: Practice Perfect
What do you want to work on practicing over and over again as an educational architect?
What does this information tell you about what you can do as an educational architect?
What does this information tell you about how to go about teaching?
Silent Think:
How have you responded well to discipline in the past? Why did you respond well?

1. Apprentices' Guidelines (Codes 001-009)
2. Consequence Ladder (LPTM's Behavioral Tiers)
3. Positive Behavior Intervention System (PBIS) or Individual and Whole-Class Incentives
4. Techniques for Expecting and Maintaining 100%, including managing Off-Task Behaviors
The purpose of discipline should be to modify behavior so that more learning can happen and a safe learning environment is created.
Have an easy-to-follow classroom management system in place
Restorative vs. Punitive
No-nonsense nurturing
Relationships with students make all the difference in how ‘discipline’ is received.
Be consistent in follow-through
Keys and "Thought Morsels"
Be a rainbow in someone else's cloud
Know your purpose and cling to it, especially when the going is rough
Be authentic, not two-faced
Relationships are key
The thoughts, feelings, words, and actions of the teacher and students affect overall learning
Self-reflect on your practice and be open to feedback
Every day is a new day; give second chances and don't hold grudges
Believe in every student's potential and work to develop that
3 Word secret to living your best life
Keys and "Thought Morsels"
"Just do right" - What does this mean for you? For you as LPTM staff?
"If you teach, you have to live your teaching" - Maya Angelou
Exit Ticket
Secret Handshake #1 - gonoodle.com
Usher's ABCs - gonoodle.com
c. Positive Behavior Intervention System or Individual and Whole-Class Incentives
Track positive and negative points
ClassDojo (https://www.classdojo.com/)
Color Changes (younger apprentices)
Teacher vs. Student
Culture Tickets around LPTM values
Participation/Respect Points
Model around the 4 C’s (Connect, Create, Contribute, Celebrate)

a. Includes your Apprentices’ Guidelines (Codes 001-009)
b. Consequence Ladder (LPTM’s Behavioral Tiers)
Impact of Classroom Layout
on Classroom Management System
Classroom Layout
If possible should match learning activity or be easily moved

Regardless of classroom layout, remember
To circulate
Use proximity
Jones’ Zones of Proximity
Teach and utilize nonverbal signals

Impact of Classroom Layout
on Classroom Management System
Routines and Procedures
Entry Routines
Routines for 1st entry
Routine for 2nd entry
Create a routines for when DC Reads comes and pulls apprentices
Attention getters
Transition routines

Techniques for Expecting and Maintaining 100% including managing Off-Task Behaviors
What are common causes of misbehavior?
Always be on the lookout for how can you prevent these causes from being present or turning into misbehavior
Brain Breaks
What does 100% mean?

100%: Part 1: Radar/Be Seen Looking
“Prevent nonproductive behavior by developing your ability to see it when it happens and by subtly reminding students that you are looking” (Lemov, 2015, p. 387).
100% Part 2: Make Compliance Visible
“Ensure that students follow through on a request in an immediate and visible way by setting a standard that’s more demanding than marginal compliance. Be judicious in what you ask for, specifically because it will uphold the standard of compliance” (Lemov, 2015, p. 393).
100% Part 3: Least Invasive Intervention
“Maximize teaching time and minimize ‘drama’ by using the subtlest and least invasive tactic possible to correct off-task students” (Lemov, 2015, p. 395).
“…the skill of reliable seeing what’s happening in your classroom” (p. 388)
“Consistently and intentionally” scan the room (p. 389)
Where you stand matters – stand in the corner of the room (Pastore’s Perch) vs. the front center
“Be Seen Looking” (Q1)
• Look for follow-through right after you give a direction
• Be Seen Looking Dance Moves (pp. 391-392) (There but subtle)
The Swivel
The Invisible Column
The Tiptoes
The Sprinkler

The Disco Finger
The Politician
The QB (used when conferencing with individual students)

100% Part 3: Least Invasive Intervention Continued
Six Interventions - from least invasive to most invasive
1. Nonverbal Intervention
(examples: hand gesture, modeling the correct behavior nonverbally)
You must keep teaching while using the nonverbal signal
Choose just a few to use that you use for the off-task behaviors that you see the most often
2. Positive Group Correction
– “ideal for catching off-task behavior early” (p. 398)
Positive – describes the solution rather than the off-task behavior
Group – Directed toward the whole class
Short, economy of language
While using this, you can simultaneously correct individual students with nonverbal or eye contact and head nodding
Better than saying an individual student's name (Q3)
3. Anonymous Individual Correction
Still positive by describing the solution rather than the noncompliance
Can follow a positive group correction or be used by itself
Can be combined with a nonverbal intervention
Ex: “’Track me please, [positive group correction]. I need two more sets of eyes [anonymous individual correction]” (p. 399).

100% Part 3: Least Invasive Intervention Continued (2)
100% Part 3: Least Invasive Intervention Continued (3)
100% Part 4: Firm
Calm Finesse
100% Part 4: Firm
Calm Finesse Continued
Show Your Bright Face
• A smiling face that is appropriate for the age level of the students and communicates that you like what you are doing, you are confident about it, and have a plan for what you’re doing.
Deploy Your Confirmation Glance
• You want to demonstrate that you trust that your students will meet your high expectations.
• When you ask a student to correct misbehavior, give him/her a second to comply by looking (or walking) away and then glancing (or coming) back to see if he/she has complied. This glance or walk away should be short in time to begin with.
Stay Steady at the Helm
• Stay calm and steady
• Don’t let students think they can get a rise out of you or distract you from your teaching by their misbehavior
• For difficult students... (Q6)
100% Part 5: Art of the Consequence
Make what you ask for students to do be as visible as possible so that you can more easily see them complying and thus more easily hold them accountable to it. (“Pencils down and eyes on me” vs. just “eyes on me”)
"Enforce marginal compliance" (p. 394). (Q2)
Visible Reset” (p. 393-394)
• At least 3 times in a lesson, do a visible reset, which includes:
“Give an observable direction
Use Radar (that is, scan intentionally and strategically to see whether it’s done).
Stand in Pastore’s Perch while scanning
Narrate the follow-through of at least two students who’ve done right away what the teacher has asked. Fix or improve at least one student if things are at all rocky, to set higher expectations” (p. 393).

Interrupting instruction to correct a student’s behavior not only takes time but also gives more opportunities for disengagement, possibly more off-task behavior, and possibly gives unhelpful attention to the student who was off-task
Least Invasive Interventions are as invisible as possible and occur while you continue teaching
Six Interventions – from least to most invasive (goal: be as close to the top of the list as possible) – should be used as they work, do not need to be used in order or progressively

4. Private Individual Correction (PIC)
Use when you can talk to a student individually, privately, while you have everyone doing a task
You give a direction, then move to the student, crouch down, and in a quiet but strong voice correct by naming the solution and emphasize purpose over power
If you need to return to correct again, the student needs a consequence
5. Private Individual Precise Praise (PIPP)
Like PIC, it is done privately, in a low voice, but in this case you are praising the student for something specific
Makes other students less likely to try to ear hustle because your comment could be either praise or correction/constructive
Makes students more open to your approaching them privately

6. Lightning-Quick Public Correction

Done out loud but with economy of language and describing the solution positively vs. pointing out the problem (not just saying the student’s name)
Is followed with specifically highlighting those who are already doing the on-task behavior
Ex: “’Quentin, I need your pencil moving…just like those sharp-looking scholars in my back row!’” or “’Quentin, I need your pencil moving…just like Josefina. And like Malichai’”(p. 401).
More rare case: “’Quentin, I need your pencil moving. Looking sharp, back row! Thank you, Quentin. Much better’” (p. 401).

Why not ignore misbehavior? (Q4)

Ways to redirect quietly and privately
Sticky notes
Hand signals

“Take steps to get compliance without conflict by establishing an environment of purpose and respect and by maintaining your own poise” (Lemov, 2015, p. 403).
Catch It Early
• Prevents the misbehavior from growing and your attitude, feelings, and words from becoming negative
Value Purpose over Power
• You have high expectations for the purpose of the students gaining the most learning and becoming more self-controlled vs. expecting the best of them just because you said so
Remember that “Thank You” is the Strongest Phrase
• Used after a student complies (please can go with your positive correction)
• Used in a more muted tone
• “Reinforces expectations and normalizes compliance” (p. 404)
Use Universal Language
• Emphasizes learning is a team activity (Q5)

“Ensure that consequences, when needed, are more effective by making them quick, incremental, consistent, and depersonalized. It also helps to make a bounce-back statement, showing students that they can quickly get back in the game” (Lemov, 2015, p. 406).
Principles of the Effective Consequence
: Purpose (Q7)
Happens right after misbehavior
Can be as simple as “Do it again”
Reduces potential increased attention seeking behaviors or escalating the situation

Start small and move up the ladder
Match to level of misbehavior severity
Can give students a way back
Gives students reason to keep trying

Students will know what to expect if they choose to misbehave

Keep private if possible
Keep your voice, tone, and volume steady and neutral so not to escalate

100% Part 5: Art of the Consequence Continued
100% Part 5: Art of the Consequence Continued (2)
Principles of Delivering a Consequence
Tag the Behavior

Helps students to take ownership and responsibility for their actions (Q8)
Try to do it the same way each time
“One tried-and-true approach is to name the student, identify the behavior, and list the consequence (for example, ‘Michael. Talking. Two dollars.’)” (pp. 408-409).
Make it clear what they did wrong and what they need to do to fix their behavior
Reduces pushback (Q9)
Use a Bounce-Back Statement
Many students shut down after they receive a consequence. They might think you’re now against them or everyone is. You need to be able to help move them in the right direction.
A bounce-back statement “shows students that success is still within their grasp” (p. 409).
Ex: ”‘Two dollars. Pick up your pencil; get back to writing like I know you can’” (p. 409).
Teach students how to persist (Q10)
Maintain the Pace

“Describe what students should be doing as opposed to what they are not doing…
Use the least amount of verbiage you can….Doing so maximizes instructional time and minimizes the amount of time students are left onstage” (p. 410).
Avoids lecturing
Get Back on Track
“Get in, get out, move on” (p. 410)
Your focus shows what you value (Q11)
When to Use a Consequence vs. a Correction

Persistence and repetition
If students continue to do the same thing over and over, even after correction, use a consequence
If students misbehaved based on misunderstanding or distraction, use a correction
Degree of disruption
If behavior disrupts others’ learning: consequence
If behavior does not disrupt others’ learning: correction
Willful defiance: consequence
And, not or
Use both correction and consequence, but in that order
The order matters – gives students time to self-correct, de-escalates emotions, shows you can comply without a consequence

Dealing with Persisent Misbehavior

Collect Data
Take a moment, breathe, pause, and look around the room
Watch for patterns
Have another adult do an ABC – Antecedents, Behaviors, Consequences

Create a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Off Balance?
Thoughts, words, and actions
“Our program team members bring their unique talents and abilities to the development of our program and use the Life Pieces curriculum for teachable moments such as:

• What are your innate creative abilities (skills and talents that are unique to you), and how can you use them to reach your goals?

• How can you apply your values when making difficult decisions?” (http://lifepieces.org/after-school-program)

• How do your thoughts, words, and actions impact your every day life?
Why did I have you come up with them vs. me just put them up there?

What do you think about the timing of when we did these? Why didn’t I do it later in the session, say right now when we are talking about the expectations?
Our Workshop Contract/Expectations
Do It Again
- Shortens the feedback loop

Culture of Error
- What is it and why create it?

What to Do
- What are What to Do directions?
* Specific * Concrete
* Sequential * Observable
No Opt Out
- What is it and why is it important?

Strong Voice
- Use a Formal Register

- Sets a standard of excellence, not just compliance
Building a Culture of Error
* Expect error

* Withhold the answer

* Manage the tell

* Praise the Risk Taking
- Four ways to get to an answer:
* Other student provides cue; original student provides the answer.
* Other student provides answer; original student repeats.
* Teacher provides cue; original student provides the answer.
* Teacher provides answer; original student repeats.
- Square Up/Stand Still

- Excude Quiet Power
- Do Not Talk Over

- Use economy of language
- Consistent What to Do

- Adding a Gesture
- What to Do with Checking for
- Simplified What to Do
- What to Do Out Front
- Assuming the Best

- No administrative follow-up
- Promotes group culture and accountability
- Ends with success

- Is reusable
Choose Your Own
(Lemov, 2015, pp. 64-71)
(Lemov, 2015, pp. 90-99)
(Lemov, 2015, pp. 412-415)
(Lemov, 2015, pp. 417-421)
(Lemov, 2015, pp. 372-377)
"Many students come to school expecting to fail because they've normalized failure. Teachers sometimes forget how powerful it can be to experience a simple success when good news in school is rare and elusive" (Lemov, 2015, p. 90).
- Do Not Engage
Consequence vs. Correction
o Persistence and repetition
 If students continue to do the same thing over and
over, even after correction, use a consequence
 If students misbehaved based on misunderstanding
or distraction, use a correction
o Degree of disruption
 If behavior disrupts others’ learning: consequence
 If behavior does not disrupt others’ learning:
o Motivation
 Willful defiance: consequence
o And, not or
 Use both correction and consequence, but in that
 The order matters – gives students time to self-
correct, de-escalates emotions, shows you
can comply without a consequence

De-escalation Strategies for Agitated and Dangerous Behaviors
From LRP's National Institute on Legal Issues of Educating Students with Disabilities
Full transcript