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Geographic information system (GIS)

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Shashank Shankhapal

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Geographic information system (GIS)

Research Question
Case study 2
A Presentation by:
valleru madhu

(Image Source: http://www.gis.rgs.org/images/front/main.jpg)
GIS: Geographic Information Systems
Computer-based systems for integrating and analyzing geographic & spatial) data
GIS can be used to map & analyze geographic distributions of health risks & outcomes in order to assess possible associations
(Image Source: http://www.co.goodhue.mn.us/departments/landuse/gis/files/place_to_place_gis.jpg)
The key word to this technology is Geography – this means that some portion of the data is spatial. In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data.
What is GIS?
Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features.
An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, student capacity would make up the attribute data.
GIS is a technological field that incorporates geographical features with tabular data in order to map, analyze, and assess real-world problems.
Background of GIS and their purpose
Describe an actual application and
critique its use of GIS
GIS at National Park Service
How GIS works?
Comley, E. K., McLafferty, S. L. (2012). GIS and public health (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Tanser, F., & le Sueur, D. (2002). The application of geographical information systems to important public health problems in Africa. International Journal of Health Geographics, 1(4), 1-9.
General Indicators
Critical Thinking Question
Do you think the use of GIS in this study was cost-effective and WHY?
How GIS is used in Disaster Relief
They use rapid identification of potential shelter. housing locations.
-Can produce maps and imagery of the incident for government officials at regional and national levels who are responsible for providing public safety.
-Identification of supplies and materials necessary for response, relief and recovery efforts.
Critique of GIS
1) Positive social and health consequences
-Greater access to health information
-Innovative way to visualize and analyze health data
-Spatial modeling directly applies to the variations in environment and disease factors

2) Potential negative social consequences
-Requires resource-intensive disease reporting
-Reinforces the power of state agencies
-Spatial perspective could be misleading
-Promotes technocratic view of social problems
Obstacles to GIS development in Africa
Capacity development controlled by outside funders and resources
Lack of suitable GIS databases
Difficulty determining data resolution requirements
Must prove cost-effectiveness to key role players
-The GIS form, store, manipulate, analyze and display objects and events around the Earth.

-They form data and layers of events on weather on locations throughout the Earth.
What is GIS Used For?
-Emergency departments, such as Police and Fire Departments, also use the GIS to help with their daily operations.
-It helps emergency operators to find the shortest routes that can be taken to get to a certain place in a point in time.
-Bankers and real estate agents use GIS to keep track of property values, tax information and property values
-Government agencies use GIS to help planning and organizing the geographic data.
-GIS is not limited to federal use only.
-Local and state governments also use GIS to keep track of roads, public works, and many other things that are within jurisdiction.

Gis Layers
Abstract ESRI GIS technologies are being used at FedEx Express to solve complex business problems in both the planning and execution of the daily delivery process. The application of spatial data at FedEx is unique in that it is being used to support several mission critical, multi user applications and processes worldwide
It is aimed at minimizing costs such as mileage, overtime of workforce, efficient routing, and effective delivery methods, leading to higher productivity and greater customer satisfaction
dynamic nature of the daily execution as a business problem, when coupled with the analysis of historical events, GIS spatial data, customer data, and resource information can predict best practices for delivery methods and increased productivity.
Introduction FedEx uses a map based system to support planning and operations activities for the on road pickup and delivery operations within the Express operating company. Planners who operate locally and with local knowledge build route plans which guide every stage of the operation from sorting the inbound freight to loading the vans, to driving the routes
GIS tools are used to display routes on the map and overlay stops on top of those routes. The system calculates and displays statistics based on how those stops and packages relate to routes and then provides editing tools that allow the.
Technical description
learning lessons
about GIS: GIS may be used to convert a satellite image map to a vector structure by generating lines around all cells with the same classification, while determining the cell spatial relationships, such as adjacency or inclusion.
ABOUT FEDex: Abstract ESRI GIS technologies are being used at FedEx Express to solve complex business problems in both the planning and execution of the daily delivery process.
This presentation also provide technical facts that how companies like FEDex use GIS technology to do business and what strategy and process they implement to do that
Full transcript