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Chapter 9 - The Campaign for Reforms (1882-1892)
Transcript of Chapter 9 - The Campaign for Reforms (1882-1892)
a particular objective.
Persecute - to be the object of constant hostility and
Reform - the removal of faults or abuses, especially
of moral, political, or social kind.
Propaganda - publicity intended to spread ideas or
Assimilation - a condition of being absorbed or
becoming similar or alike with another. The Reform Movement 1882 - the Reform Movement, is also called
- was a literary and cultural organization formed
by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe.
- the composition made by the Filipinos exiled,
and students attending Europe's universities,
the organization aimed to increase Spanish
awareness of the needs of its colony,
the Philippines. José Protacio Rizal Mercado
y Alonso Realonda Born - 19th of June, 1861, in Calamba, Laguna.
- Considered as one of the National Filipino Hero.
- And one of the Filipino Reformist and Nationalist.
Mother: Teodora Morales Alonzo Realonda de Quintos
Father: Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado de Alejandro
Died - 30th of December, 1896, and this date is
considered as the National Holiday in the
Country--Philippines. Marcelo Hilario del Pilar
y Gatmaitán Born - 30th of August, 1850, in Bulacan.
- was a celebrated figure in the Philippine Revolution
and a leading Propagandist for reforms in the
- known as Plaridel.
Mother: Blasa Gatmaitán
Father: Julián del Pilar
Died - 4th of July, 1896, because of Tubercolosis. Freemasonry and Its Role 1889 - in Barcelona, Lopez Jaena brought together
all Filipino Masons when he founded the lodge.
- another year, La Solidaridad was founded in
Early 1891 - Filipinos who had been to Spain, met and
decided to establish the Masonic lodge Nilad in
May 1893 - Masonry became popular in the
Philippines. Definition of Terms Triumvirate - a group of three individuals sharing
authority in power.
Solidarity - unity or agreement of feelings, or action.
Masonry - a secret society of an international
fraternity for mutual help. Graciano López Jaena Born - 18th of December, 1856, in Iloilo City.
Mother: Maria Jacobo Jaena
Father: Placido Lopez
1889 - founded the fortnightly newspaper
La Solidaridad (Solidarity).
- became the first editor.
Died - 20th of January, 1896, because of Tubercolosis.
- buried at Cementerio del Sub-Oeste of
Barcelona. The Reform Movement La Liga Filipina - founded by Rizal.
Cortes - the Spanish lawmaking body.
Important Filipino Reformists:
Graciano Lopez Jaena (1856-1896)
Jose Rizal (1861-1896)
Marcelo Del Pilar (1850-1896)
Mariano Ponce (1863-1918) The Pro-Filipino Societies 1882 - they organized the Circulo Hispano-
Filipino (The Spanish-Filipino Circle)
- they also published the newspaper named
Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Journal
of the Spanish-Filipino Circle)
1889 - inagurated the Asociacion Hispanp-Filipina.
- the aspiration of it was "to work for the
material and moral improvement of the
Philippines. La Liga Filipina 1892 - Rizal returned to the Philippines.
- he proposed the establishment of a civic society.
3rd of July, 1892 - Rizal and a group of patriotic
Filipinos, including Andres Bonifacio, founded the
society, La Liga Filipina.
6th of July - the governor-general ordered the arrest
- as a consequence of his arrest, the Liga died a
natural death. Why the Reform Movement
Failed? There are four (4) reasons to explain of why the
reform movement failed:
1. the Spanish high officials in Spain were too busy.
2. the reformists in Spain and in the Philippines did
not have the necessary financial means.
3. the reformists themselves were not united.
4. the friars in the Philippines had influential
friends and supporters in Spain. (The Philippine League) Mariano Ponce Born - 23rd of March, 1893 in Bulacan.
Mother: Maria Collantes delos Santos
Father: Mariano Ponce
1882 - joined in the journey of The Filipino
1889 - assisted Lopez Jaena in the La Solidaridad.
Died - 23rd of May, 1918 in Hong Kong.