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Transcript of Sigmund Freud
NAME: Sigmund Freud
Originally: Sigismund Schlomo Freud
OCCUPATION: Scholar, Psychiatrist
BIRTH DATE: May 06, 1856
DEATH DATE: September 23, 1939
EDUCATION: University of Vienna
PLACE OF BIRTH: Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire
PLACE OF DEATH: London, England
1856 - 1939
-the impulsive, child-like portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and only takes into account what it wants and disregards all consequences.
Id is equivalent to the devil sitting on one's shoulder
-plays the critical and moralizing role in the psyche, aims for perfection, includes ego's ideals, punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt.
Super-ego is equivalent to the angel on one's shoulder.
- the organized, realistic portion on the psyche that acts according to the "reality principle" and seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief.
Ego is equivalent to one's conscience.
He developed on theories about child sexuality, libido and the ego, among other topics
"Where id is, there shall ego be."
– Sigmund Freud
1. Sigmund Freud Was the Oldest of Eight kids
2. Sigmund Freud Was the Founder of Psychoanalysis
3. Freud Was Initially an Advocate and User of Cocaine
4. Sigmund Freud Developed the Use of "Talk Therapy"
5. Freud's Daughter, Anna, Was Also a Famous and Influential Psychologist
6. Sigmund Freud had a travel phobia.
7. Sigmund Freud Visited the United States Only Once in His Life
8. Sigmund Freud Was Forced to Leave Vienna by the Nazis
9. Sigmund Freud Had More Than 30 Surgeries to Treat Mouth Cancer
(May 6) Sigismund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia to parents Jacob and Amalia. At the age of 41, Jakob already had two children from a previous marriage, but Sigismund was the 21-year-old Amalia's first born.
When Freud was 4, after the failure of his father's business due to economic woes, the Freud family moved to Vienna, Austria and settled in the Jewish neighborhood of Leopoldstadt.
Freud graduated summa cum laude from secondary school and began studying medicine at the University of Vienna. 8 years later in 1881 Freud received his doctorate degree in medicine
Josef Breuer describes the case of Anna O.
Began formulating his seduction theory.
1896 - His father, Jakob, died the same year.First used the term psychoanalysisin "Zur Ätiologie der Hysterie."
in Freud's life
1939 - Freud died on September 23 of cancer in London.
1933 - Corresponded with Albert Einstein.
1923 - Published The Ego and the Id and was diagnosed with jaw cancer
1920 - Published Beyond the Pleasure Principle, which introduced his concept of the death instinct
1909 - Freud made his first and only visit to the United States along with Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi. He had been invited by G. Stanley Hall to present a series of guest lectures at Clark University
1906 - Began correspondence with Carl Jung.
The conscious mind is what a person is aware of at any particular time, your perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, and feelings.
The largest part is the unconscious which includes all things that are not easily accessible, including drives and instincts, and things that people cannot bear to look at them, such as traumatic memories and emotions.
Defense Mechanisms and Ego Anxiety
In Sigmund Freud's idea of personality, the ego is the aspect of personality that deals with reality. While doing this, the ego also has to cope with the conflicting demands of the id and the superego. The id seeks to fulfill all wants, needs and impulses while the superego tries to get the ego to act in an idealistic and moral manner.
What happens when the ego cannot deal with the demands of our desires, the constraints of reality and our own moral standards? According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. Anxiety acts as a signal to the ego that things are not going right.
The pre-conscious is related to the conscious in that it can readily bring to mind the memories a person is not thinking about at the moment
Two smallest parts of the mind
Source of our motivations
Humans are driven to deny or resist these motives
Acts as a storage of unwanted needs or memories.
Innocent behavior can give away clues about unconscious desires
"The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water." ~Sigmund Freud
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Birth to 18 months
During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of pleasure is through the use of their mouths, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.
Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.
If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating.
The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting.
According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults.
However, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.
Sigmund Freud Dream Analysis
Life instincts are those that deal with basic survival, pleasure, and reproduction. These instincts are important for sustaining the life of the individual as well as the continuation of the species. While they are often called sexual instincts, these drives also include such things as thirst, hunger, and pain avoidance. The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido.
Behaviors commonly associated with the life instinct include love, cooperation, and other pro-social actions.
Freud believed that “the goal of all life is death” . He noted that after people experience a traumatic event (such as war), they often reenact the experience. He concluded that people hold an unconscious desire to die, but that this wish is largely tempered by the life instincts.
In Freud’s view, self-destructive behavior is an expression of the energy created by the death instincts. When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence.
Age Range: 3 to 6 years
When a child begins to realize the differences between himself/herself and his/her opposite gender, a curiosity develops and they begin to explore these differences (undressing and exploring their own and others genitalia) Realize physical and gender differences between boys and girls.
This is the conflict that arises with the phallic stage as the child becomes more interested in his/her genitals and the genitals of others. The conflict is that the child unconsciously desires the parent of the opposite sex The Oedipal complex is a term is used to describe a child's feelings of desire for his opposite sex parent and jealously and anger towards his father. Essentially, a boy feels like he is in competition with his father for possession of his mother. He views his father as a rival for her attentions and affections.
-Because of the fear of castration and his competition with his father, the son begins to identify with the father instead of fighting him.
-This leads the boy to becomes more masculine, and repress his feelings for his mother
-Fixations at this stage can include sexual deviances, and confused sexual identity
Purpose and Factors of a Dream:
Dreams serve to protect the sleeper from exposure to external and internal stimuli.
External stimuli includes environmental and physical factors such as light, noise, temperature, pain (back, arm, leg etc.), the need to urinate etc.
Internal stimulus is classified as any set of strong, usually negative, emotions, thoughts, or desires.
Disassociates and disconnects from reality and confronts suppressed forms of external and, mostly, internal stimuli that would disturb and awaken the dreamer were it not for the censorship of dreams.
An external stimulus is often interpreted into some form of translation within the dream; your puppy gnawing on your finger may be depicted as a tiger attempting to bite off your arm.
Internal stimuli, because its complex nature correlating with emotions and feelings, is filtered much differently.
Freud believed that dreams are the censored releases of our id’s impulses and desires.
The id, while awake, is constantly suppressed by the moralistic superego and sees the mind’s vulnerable state while sleeping as an opportunity to express its desires.
The content of the id’s desires are thought by Freud to be too disturbing for the mind.
Freud believed that if a person was exposed directly to the desires of the id, mental and emotional damage could be a result.
This is essentially Freud’s criticism of the id, claiming that its primitive nature is unfit for human consciousness.
Dreams, according to Freud’s theory, would be an essential factor in mental health as it acts as the guardian against one’s own id.
Manifest is the entire dream; it is all that the sleeper remembers about the displayed dream.
The superficial description of the dream, the manifest, is considered meaningless.
The manifest fulfills its job by suppressing the true thoughts and concerns of the sleeper by disguising them within the dream
To Parts Of A Dream
The latent content holds the true meaning of the dream, and depicts the sleeper’s true thoughts, feelings, and desires.
The latent content is subtly weaved into the manifest, making the latent content of the dream present in the depiction of the dream but virtually unrecognizable.
In rare cases referred to by Freud as “infantile dreams,” the latent content may be clearly depicted and obvious to the sleeper
A Freudian slip is a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to the unconscious mind. examples include an individual calling his or her spouse by an ex's name, saying the wrong word or even misinterpreting a written or spoken word.
Freud was considered by many to be the father of psychology due to his impact.
Freud gave us a better understanding of personality, clinical psychology and human development.
Freud investigated a wide range of subjects including sex, dreams, culture, and art, leaving no area unaffected by his genius. Perhaps most importantly, Freud contributed to the growing societal focus on the conflicts of the individual rather than the group or nation, which has reached a societal apex today. Without Sigmund Freud we would truly have less of an understanding of the mind, and of society, than we do today.
Repression is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious. Thoughts that are often repressed are those that would result in feeling of guilt from the superego. For example, in the Oedipus complex aggressive thoughts about the same sex parents are repressed.
Denial involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it. It can operate by itself or, more commonly, in combination with other, more subtle mechanisms that support it. For example, smokers may refuse to admit to themselves that smoking is bad for their health.
This involves individuals attributing their own thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Thoughts most commonly projected onto another are ones that would cause guilt such as aggressive and sexual fantasies or thoughts. For instance, you might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can 'solve' the problem by believing that they hate you.
Displacement is the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target. The target can be a person or an object that can serve as a symbolic substitute. Someone who feels uncomfortable with their sexual desire for a real person may substitute a fetish. Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burnings
This is similar to displacement, but takes place when we manage to displace our emotions into a constructive rather than destructive activity. This might for example be artistic. Many great artists and musicians have had unhappy lives and have used the medium of art of music to express themselves. Sport is another example of putting our emotions (e.g. aggression) into something constructive
In psychoanalysis (therapy) Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind them taking notes while they told him about their dreams and childhood memories. Psychoanalysis would be a lengthy process, involving many sessions with the psychoanalyst
The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders.
It’s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers.
The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals.
Balanced areas in life
Develop relationships with others
Learn to desire members of the opposite sex and to fulfill your instinct to procreate and thus ensure the survival of the human species.
If other stages are completed successfully, the individual will be: