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Aren Beryl Daga

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of invertebrates

CHOANOFLAGELLATES BICOSOECIDEA LABYRINTHOMORPHA PROTOZOA BY: DAGA, Aren Beryl B. CONTINUATION.. METAMONADA Choanoflagellates are free-swimming or attached, solitary or colonial flagellates with strong resemblance to the choanocytes of sponges. They bear a single, retractable flagellum surrounded by a circlet of minute filipodia or microvilli that form a bacteria-capturing filter-feeding system. Choanoflagellates usually live within a secreted membranous or gelatinous sheath or a lorica of siliceous ribs. They occur in all aquatic habitats and have been described as being "so common in the plankton that they may be the most numerous phagotrophs on Earth". PROTEROMONADA Small, free-living, aquatic flagellates, with two flagella arising from an anterior depression. They secrete a cup-shaped lorica within which they attach themselves by means of the posterior of the flagella while the anterior flagellum collects food materials. Most species are solitary although few are colonial. Small and poorly understood flagellates with one or two pairs of flagella arising directly from the cell surface. Some species are free-living in aquatic habitats, sometimes colonially, others parasitize the guts of vertebrates, taking in food materials by pinocytosis. Colonial, spindle-shaped (or in one group, oval), non-amoeboid protists that move within an anastomosing slime track secreted by characteristic organelles, sagenetosomes, and containing extracorporeal cytoplasm. The latter includes actin fibres which may partly be responsible for the gliding motion of the cells. A flagellated haploid spore stage is included in the life cycle. "Slime nets" are mostly marine saprotrophs, growing on eel grasses and seaweeds. Phagotrophic, solitary commensals, symbionts or parasites in the guts of animals, especially insects, that lack mitochondria and Golgi bodies. They possess one or several 'karyomastigonts (complex assemblages of fibres, one associated nucleus, and one or two pairs of flagella) which may be associated with a curved sheet of microtubules, also enclosing the associated nucleus, extending to the end of the cell, the axostyle. A few species are free-living (but still lack mitochondria PARABASALIA Trichomonas augusta Lophomonaa A somewhat similar group to the metamonads in that they possess up to several hundred karyomastigonts and lack mitochondria; the parabasalians are also symbiotic or parasitic in animal guts, especially in those of wood consuming insects. They, however, differ in the form of their mitosis and mitotic spindles, and in their possession of Golgi apparatus that, here, are associated with the basal bodies of some of their flagella to form the 'parabasal bodies' that give these flagellates their name. From four to thousands of flagella (two to 16 per karyomastigont) occur in an anterior region. Many species contain symbiotic spirochaete bacteria. OPALINATA Superficially ciliate-like, flattened, solitary flagellates that inhabit he guts of aquatic ectothermal vertebrates, especially amphibians, and absorb food materials from their hosts through the pellicles. They possess two to hundreds of similar nuclei, and many diagonal rows of numerous short flagella across the body, new rows being added during growth from a special proliferation site. Undergoes sexual reproduction with the gametes being uninucleate and multiflagellate. ACTINOPODA A large, almost certainly polyphyletic group of spherically symmetrical amoebae characterized by numerous, fine, sticky pseudopodia, each supported by an internal skeletal microtubular axoneme, radiating in geometrical patterns from the cell mass. Many are large and possess an inorganic endoskeletal system: radiating spicules of strontium sulphate; a central, perforated, ball-like shell of silica with or without radiating elemants; etc. These radiolarians, heliozoans and acantharians are mainly planktonic predators, although many also contain photosynthetic symbionts; some alive attached to the substratum. DINOPHYTA Motile or non-motile, thecate or athecate, mostly solitary and photosynthetic protists that bear permanently condensed chromosomes and two flagella, one commonly in a groove around the body, the other free. Several species, however, lack the characteristic brown chloroplasts, and take in preformed food materials saprotrophically or phagotrophically; some are parasitic, one species forms 'zooxanthellae'. A few contain nematocyst-like organelles. Most species are haploid, marine and plantonic; some live attached to the substratum, a few are colonial. CILIOPHORA The ciliates move by means of the cilia that occur in highly organized rows along their bodies (the number of such rows remaining constant during growth). Feeding is often also accomplished by means of cilia that maybe aggregated into compound tentacle- or membrane-like organelles. Each cell contains nuclei of two types: a diploid 'micronucleus' capable of meiosis; and a polyploid, somatic 'macronucleus' not so capable and usually dividing amitotically. Sexaual reproduction involves reciprocal exchange of meioticallly produced haploid nuclei during conjugation. A large and diverse group containing free-living and attached, solitary and colonial, predatory, parasitic, filter-feeding and symbiont-feeding forms. SPOROZOA Parasitic protists with a complex life cycle, in which haploid and diploid generations alternate and in which at least one stage possesses an apical complex of organelles used in attachment to, or penetration of, the host cell, and in which at least one stage also possesses specialized microspores in the cell wall through which food materials are taken up. Episodes of multiple fission occur, except in the male gamete of some species. Sporozoans parasitize other protists and many groups of animals from all types of habitat: they are responsible for diseases such as malaria and various forms of dysentery in man. MICROSPORA Intracellular parasites lacking mitochondria and flagella, that produce minute, resistant, chitinous, unicellular spores, each containing a single eversible filament like the cnidarian nematocyst. When the filament everts, the spore plasm emerges through the tube and is injected into the host cell. It then usually develops into a plasmodium in which, in turn, large numbers of such spores may be formed within vacuoles. Microsporans mainly infect other protists, invertebrates and fish. ASCETOSPORA A small group of parasites mainly of marine invertebrates, particularly annelids and molluscs, that lack flagella and produce complex unicellular or multicellular spores that do not contain eversible, coiled, nematocyst-like filaments. The uninucleate ascetosporan spore plasm escapes from its resistant spore through an apical pore, otherwise closed by a diaphragm or operculum. It then develops onto an extracellular plasmodium. MYXOSPORA A large group of plasmodial parasites, generally regarded as being diploid, that lack flagella and produce multicellular spores containing one to several capsules, each with an eversible, coiled filament. This filament serves to anchor the capsule to the host tissue, while the spore plasm escapes from the capsule between its valves, not through the filament. Spores are formed within the plasmodium by portions becoming isolated by membraes and the differentiating; some cells form within other cells by internal division. Because the spore cells are differentiated into several types, and because of the strong resemblance of the spore capsules to cnidarian nematocysts including in the manner of their development, some believe that the myxosporans have evolved from the multicellular cnidarians.
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