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Science- Selective breeding and cloning

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Joyann Leung

on 3 February 2013

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Transcript of Science- Selective breeding and cloning

Selective Breeding and Cloning By: Joyann Leung What is Selective Breeding? Cloning Selective Breeding How plants clone themselves- asexual reproduction Advantages and disadvantages Steps to Selective Breeding 1. Decide which characteristics are important
2.Choose parents that show these characteristics
3. Select the best offspring from parents to breed the next generation
4.Repeat the process continuously How genetic engineering is done Plants can make identical copies of themselves by asexual reproduction. However, animals can not clone themselves. Humans have been cloning plants for years and have recently started to develop techniques to clone animals.

Animal cloning raises ethical issues about how far humans should interfere in the production of new life. Plants can make clones of themselves. Many plants have ways of increasing their numbers by something called asexual reproduction. This is where new plants are created by repeated cell division. For humans to clone plants, we take a cutting of the plant and wait for it to grow This is easy and artificially way. Advantages- All the new plants are genetically identical and will all have the desired characteristics. Organisms that are difficult or slow to breed normally can be reproduced much quicker. Some plant varieties do not produce seeds, others have seeds that are dormant for long periods. Over the centuries humans have tried to breed better crops and livestock. Selective breeding is the traditional method for improving crops and livestock. Traditionally this was done by carefully choosing parents for breeding that show the required characteristics but more recently it's been possible to implant particular genes using genetic engineering. Advantages and
Disadvantages Disadvantages-
Future generations of selectively bred organisms will all share very similar genes. This could make some diseases more dangerous as all the organisms would be affected. There is a risk of genetic disease caused by recessive genes. In addition to that, some genes would be lost, making it more difficult to produce new varieties in the future. Advantages-
Selective breeding is the traditional method that can improve livestock and crops. It is a much faster way. It transplants genes for a desired characteristic into an organism. It is an artificial process. However, it often carries the risk of unexpected harmful effects. Examples of selective breeding:
Wheat-
Producing disease-resistant wheat by crossbreeding wheat plants with disease resistance and wheat plants with a high yield.

Dairy cattle-
Increasing milk yield by selecting bulls from high yield herds and breeding them with cows that have the best milk production. What is it? Examples of plants that clone themselves:
Potato plants- A potato plant can produce tubers, each of which can grow into a new plant.

Strawberry plants and spider plants- These plants produce long stems with tiny plants on the end which are called runners. These runners can produce several new plants from one parent. How are animals cloned?- Dolly the sheep, the first animal to be cloned and Cows Disadvantages- If a clone is vulnerable to a disease or change in environment, then all the clones will be vulnerable as well. Also, it will lead to fewer variations of the plant/animal which means less opportunities to create new varieties in the
future. Bibliography:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/genesrev1.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/cloningrev1.shtml
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