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Severe/Profound Intellectual Disabilities
Transcript of Severe/Profound Intellectual Disabilities
Severe/Profound Intellectual Disabilities were formerly called Severe/Profound Mental Retardation/SPMD
Even before the advent of widespread mental testing, a special class for people with intellectual disability was established in Providence, Rhode Island in 1896. In 1911, New Jersey mandated that education be provided for students with intellectual disabilities.
Mental retardation is a construct with many interpretations. In some periods of history, mental retardation has been referred to as a disease. In other periods it has been thought of as a disability. Often mental retardation has been represented as social deviance. Most modern professionals in the United States adopt the definition published in 1992 by the American Association for Mental Retardation (AAMR). This definition describes mental retardation as neither a disease nor a disability but a functional state with limitations in both intelligence and adaptive skills.
In October 2010, Congress passed Rosa's Law, which changed references to “mental retardation” in specified Federal laws to “intellectual disability,” and references to “a mentally retarded individual” to “an individual with an intellectual disability.”
History of Disability
Students who have been diagnosed with a severe/profound disability would be placed into a self-contained classroom setting
By placing these students in a self-contained classroom, they are able to get one-on-one instruction which is what they need to be successful
Potential Educational Effects of the Disability
Requirements for Eligibility in Special Education
Intellectual disabilities described significantly below-average intellectual functioning, as well as concurrent deficits in "adaptive behavior" (age-appropriate personal independence and social responsibility)
It is manifested between birth and age 18 and negatively affects educational performance
Intellectual disability means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
IDEA is an acronym for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, our nation’s special education law. IDEA was first passed in 1975, where it was called the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act. Every few years, the law has been revised (a process called reauthorization).
Students who have an intellectual disabilities are served under IDEA
The first step in identifying a student for special education services is referral. If you suspect your child has a disability and may need special education, you may submit a written referral for a special education evaluation. School personnel may also submit such a request. The referral should be addressed to the teacher, the principal or the school system's director of education.
Identifying Children for Evaluation
The second step is evaluation and eligibility. To determine eligibility for special education services, special education laws require the child to have an initial evaluation in the areas of concern. An evaluation is a careful look at a child's abilities, strengths and weaknesses, by a team including the child's parents, teachers and specialists. An evaluation is based on a review of assessment data, information from parents, observations by teachers, classroom-based, local and State assessments. This is to determine whether a child has a disability and requires special education instruction and related services.
Potential impact on general life activities
Colvin, C. (2013, July 26). Change in Terminology: “Mental Retardation” to “Intellectual Disability”. Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https:// www.federalregister.gov/articles/2013/08/01/2013-18552/change-in-terminology-mental-retardation-to-intellectual-disability
Evaluating Children for Disability. (2014, May 1). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/evaluation/
Gluck, S. (2014, June 12). Mild, Moderate, Severe Intellectual Disability Differences. Retrieved February 5, 2015, from http://www.healthyplace.com/neurodevelopmental-disorders/intellectual-disability/mild-moderate-severe-intellectual-disability-differences/
Harbour, C., & Maulik, P. (2010, January 1). History of Intellectual Disability. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/143/
Before a child’s eligibility under IDEA can be determined, however, a full and individual evaluation of the child must be conducted. There are at least two ways in which a child may be identified to receive an evaluation under IDEA:
Parents may request that their child be evaluated. Parents are often the first to notice that their child’s learning, behavior, or development may be a cause for concern. If they’re worried about their child’s progress in school and think he or she might need extra help from special education services, they may call, email, or write to their child’s teacher, the school’s principal, or the Director of Special Education in the school district. If the school agrees that an evaluation is needed, it must evaluate the child at no cost to parents.
The school system may ask to evaluate the child. Based on a teacher’s recommendation, observations, or results from tests given to all children in a particular grade, a school may recommend that a child receive further screening or assessment to determine if he or she has a disability and needs special education and related services. The school system must ask parents for permission to evaluate the child, and parents must give their informed written permission before the evaluation may be conducted.
Severe intellectual disability
IQ 20 to 34
Considerable delays in development
Understands speech, but little ability to communicate
Able to learn daily routines
May learn very simple self-care
Needs direct supervision in social situations
Only about 3 or 4 percent of those diagnosed with intellectual disability fall into the severe category. These people can only communicate on the most basic levels. They cannot perform all self-care activities independently and need daily supervision and support. Most people in this category cannot successfully live an independent life and will need to live in a group home setting.
Experts divide the types of cognitive impairment into four categories: mild intellectual disability, moderate intellectual disability, severe intellectual disability, and profound intellectual disability.
Profound intellectual disability
IQ less than 20
Significant developmental delays in all areas
Obvious physical and congenital abnormalities
Requires close supervision
Requires attendant to help in self-care activities
May respond to physical and social activities
Not capable of independent living
People with profound intellectual disability require round-the-clock support and care. They depend on others for all aspects of day-to-day life and have extremely limited communication ability. Frequently, people in this category have other physical limitations as well. About 1 to 2 percent of people with intellectual disabilities fall into this category.
According to the new DSM-V, though, someone with severe social impairment (so severe they would fall into the moderate category, for example) may be placed in the mild category because they have an IQ of 80 or 85. So the changes in the DSM-V require mental health professionals to assess the level of impairment by weighing the IQ score against the person's ability to perform day-to-day life skills and activities.
Severe intellectual disability
describes 3 to 4 percent of this population. Communication skills are very basic. Self-care activities require daily assistance. Many individuals in this category will require safety supervision and supportive assistance. Residence in supported housing is usually necessary.
Profound intellectual disability
describes a very small portion of the persons with intellectual disabilities. Only 1 to 2 percent fall into this category. This person is dependent upon others for all aspects of daily care. Usually 24-hour care and support are needed. Communication skills are quite limited. People with profound intellectual disability usually have co-occurring sensory or physical limitations.
Key Terms to Know in Special Education. (2014, February 1). Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/keyterms-specialed/
Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (2013). Introduction to Inclusive Teaching. In The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effective instruction (5th ed., Vol. 1, p. 8). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson.
Reynolds, T., Zupanick, C., & Dombeck, M. (2015, January 1). Intellectual Disability and Severity Codes. Retrieved February 3, 2015, from http://sevencounties.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=10351&cn=208
Who is eligible and how are students identified for special education services? (2014, January 1). Retrieved February 5, 2015, from http://mdk12.org/instruction/specialed/students_identified_for_se_services.html
The earliest reference to intellectual disability dates to the Egyptian Papyrus of Thebes in 1552 B.C.
The ancient Greeks and Romans felt that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) were born because the gods had been angered.
Often children with severe ID would be allowed to die of exposure as infants rather than permitted to grow up.
However, the Romans did allow some form of protection to children with ID who were born to the wealthy, by allowing people with ID property rights and allowing them to have guardians.
Before the 18th century, societies differed in how or whether they conceptualized intellectual disability. Those with mild ID who were socially competent received no special identification or treatment, and those with more severe conditions probably received protective care from their families or in monasteries. Some societies considered people with more severe ID to be capable of receiving divine revelation.
History of Intellectual Disabilities
The first systematic and documented program of intervention for ID was developed in France in 1799. Jean-Marc Itard, a medical doctor, developed a skill-based program for a feral child he named Victor.
Eduoard Seguin took Itard's methods further and established a systematic program to educate the "feebleminded" at Salpetrière Hospital in Paris. Seguin's program emphasized "physiological and moral education" and some of its elements, like individualized instruction and behavior management, are still practiced.
Seguin emigrated to the U.S. and in 1866 published an influential reference book, Idiocy and its Treatments in Physiological Methods. Johann Guggenbühl established the first known residential facility for PWID in 1841 in Switzerland. The facility was called Abendberg, and during its tenure it received international attention, creating a "prototype for institutional care."
Itard Started it All
By the 1950s social attitudes towards PWID had developed towards tolerance and compassion, and financial support was made available for programs for them. By 1952, 46 of the 48 states had enacted legislation for educating intellectually disabled children, although severely and moderately disabled children were excluded from these benefits.
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) secured a free public education for children with ID.
In 1994, the United Nations passed the Standard Rules on Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, providing international standards for programs, policies and laws for those with disabilities.
History of Disability
A child becomes eligible for special education when the IEP team identifies the child as having a disability and in need of specially designed instruction. The disability must have educational impact.
A disability category does not determine the amount or type of service. This is determined by the IEP team, including the parents, and is based on the unique individualized strengths and needs of the child.
The evaluation may include individual assessments, observations, and an interview with the child. The evaluation also guides the IEP team in identifying the disability, developing an IEP and determining the nature and extent of the special education and related services that your child may need. Remember, the disability needs to have an educational impact.
You must give your consent in writing before the school conducts assessment procedures. All decisions about special education are made through the IEP team process. The IEP team includes:
Not less than one special education teacher.
Not less than one general education teacher.
A representative of the local school or local school system.
An individual who can interpret evaluation results.
Other individuals, at the discretion of the parent or local school system, who have knowledge or expertise.
The student, if appropriate.
The Evaluation and Who is Involved
Family Campaigns to Eliminate the Word 'Retarded'
(the video will not play on Prezi-copy the link below to watch a short but VERY inspiring video about Rosa)