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CfE H Geography: Human Geography: Population / Migration Revision
Transcript of CfE H Geography: Human Geography: Population / Migration Revision
are designed as a starter to revision or to check understanding of the topics after revision.
This should be used in combination with your own notes, 'How to Pass' and 'Grade Booster' textbooks as well as looking at Past Paper Questions.
Collecting Demographic Data
Population data is gathered using a census; this is a count of all the people in all the households withing a country on a particular date. These are normally conducted once every 10 years and ask questions about the population including: Age, sex, occupation, religion, ethnicity etc.
Vital registrations (births, deaths and marriages help track population between census')
Why conduct a census?
Census' are the only type of survey which can give the government a detailed picture of the entire population. The information from a census allows the government to target their resources more effectively and to plan for housing, education, health and transport services in the years to come.
Problems conducting a census
Census' are very expensive (UK 2011 £450m)
Differing languages spoken within a country
Sheer size of some countries
War or political problems
Nomadic people without a fixed address
Poor communications to remote areas
The structure of a country's population depends upon the birth rates, death rates and migration in a country. This is best shown using a population pyramid. This shows the population in a graph according to age and gender at any one time. They can also help to identify the impact of natural disasters, war, major migration etc.
Problems associated with rapid population growth
The country needs to spend a lot of money on hospitals and training doctors and nurses because of the large number of births
New schools need to be built and new teachers trained for all the new young people
Often a country cannot afford this and often young girls do not get educated
There may not be enough food to feed everybody so there could be famine
There may not be enough jobs so high levels of unemployment and more crime
There may not be enough housing so people are forced to build shanty towns
Lots of different things effect how densely or sparsely populated an area is. We can divide these into human and physical factors.
Climate - Few people live where the climate is extremely cold (e.g. Siberia, Russia) or extremely hot (e.g. Death Valley, USA) also people tend not to live where there is very little rain (e.g. Sahara Desert)
Soil - Areas with very good soil for growing crops are often densely populated (e.g. River Nile Valley) but areas with very bad soils make it hard to grow crops so are sparsely populated.
Relief - Areas that are very steep are hard and expensive to build on so very few people live there (e.g. mountainous areas)
Resources - Lots of people live where there are good natural resources such as coal or fresh water.
Good Communications - Areas with excellent road and railway networks and international links through airports and ports tend to be more densely populated (e.g. Europe)
Technological Development - Countries with advanced technologies and well educated people are more densely populated (e.g. Japan)
Economic Activities - Areas where there is a lot industry and trade have lots of people but areas which have farming or other primary industries as their main activity tend to have less people
Demographic Transition Model
The Demographic Transition Model Shows how a country can change over time with its Birth Rate, Death Rate and Total Population
High Birth Rate - Tradition of large Families, children needed to help work the land, lack of family planning / contraception
Death Rate - War/Famines are common, poor hygiene and sanitation, little in the way of medical advancements, little access to medicine
Low & Stable Population
Birth Rate remains high for similar reasons to Stage 1
Death Rate - Improved medical care and sanitation
Rapidly expanding population
Birth Rate - drops as contraception becomes available and less children are required to work on the land due to the mechanisation of farming
Death Rate - With continued advances in medicine this stabalises at a relatively low level
Population continues to grow rapidly
Birth Rate - continues to fall and stabalises as birth control is widely available. Women and becoming more career focused so are marrying later meaning they have less children
Death Rate - remains low
Population growth stabalises
Birth Rate - continued desire for small families with children opting to have children later in life and less children due to the costs involved
Death Rate - starts to rise as population ages, meaning greater pressure is put on services e.g. hospitals and care homes
Population starts to decline
Lots of developing countries have a much higher birth rate than death rate and therefore have a rapidly increasing population. There are lots of problems that this can cause.
Problems associated with slow population growth
Lots more care homes and medical care for the elderly is needed
The government will need to pay much more money for pensions
There will be less people in the 'economically active' population there will be less tax being raised to pay for these services
Taxes may have to increase or the age of retirement will need to rise
There will be less 'young dependents' so schools may have to close
In many developed countries the life expectancy is increasing so there are many more old people in the country (an aging population). There are lots of problems that this can cause.
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another to work or live.
Emigrants – People who leave a country
Immigrants – People who arrive in a country
Migration can be for a short period of time (Seasonal or temporary) or for life (permanent)
Seasonal – People who move to a country for a short period of time (e.g. working in another European country for a 3 month work contract)
Permanent – When people move their whole life to a new country (e.g. Poles moving to UK)
Migration can also take place within a country. Quite often this involves people moving from rural to urban areas in the search for work e.g. China
Voluntary migration is when people choose to move. This is usually because of the ‘pull’ or attraction of a better quality of life elsewhere.
Some reasons for voluntary migration:
More jobs in another country
Better paid jobs in another country
Forced migration is when people have no choice and are made to move. In this case they are ‘pushed’ out of their homes.
Some reasons for forced/involuntary migration: