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High Plains

Biology Project
by

Paola Garcia

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of High Plains

MOST IMPORTANT FACTS
HIGH PLAINS ECOREGION
The High Plains region of Texas, together with the Rolling Plains region, comprise the southern end of the Great Plains. The High Plains consist of about 20 million acres of a relatively level high plateau separated from the Rolling Plains by the Caprock Escarpment.
ABOUT THE HIGH PLAINS,
The southern edge adjoins the Edwards Plateau and Trans Pecos regions. A transition from productive grazing land to sand hills marks the boundary between the High Plains and the Trans Pecos.
HIGH PLAINS
Trees

Plains cottonwood

Honey mesquite

Bur oak

Western soapberry

Net-leaf hackberry

Silver-leaf mountain mahogany

Mohr oak

Lance-leaf sumac

Texas redbud

Prairie crabapple
Shrubs

Oklahoma plum

Common choke-cherry

Sand sage

Fourwing saltbush

Silver agarita

Feather dalea

Winter fat

Harvard shin-oak

Little-leaf sumac
Wildflowers

Winecup

Purple coneflower

Englemann daisy

Blackfoot daisy

Missouri evening primrose

Pink plains penstemon

Mealy sage

Copper-mallow

Indian blanket

Texas bluebonnet

Tahoka daisy

Prairie verbena
Grasses

Western wheatgrass

Cane bluestem

Sideoats grama

Blue grama

Buffalograss

Ear muhly

New Mexico little bluestem
Elevation
Elevation ranges from 600 feet above sea level in the eastern canyons to 3,000 feet above sea level in the ridges of the central and western regions.
Precipitation
Because of the elevation drop off at the edge of the Edwards Plateau as well as its location between the dry western plains and the moist prairies and woods to the east, average rainfall varies widely from 23 inches per year to 35 inches per year.
Extending from the Panhandle south to the Pecos River, the High Plains have been described as a sea of waving grasslands. The 20 million acres of this region fills most of the “handle portion” of the state. It is a relatively high and level plateau of sandy to heavy, dark calcareous clay soils over an impervious layer of caliche. The winters here are the coldest in Texas, with the average annual temperature being only 59 degrees. Rainfall ranges from 21 inches in the east to about 12 inches in the west. Sun and wind rob the soil of even the meager water it receives from these rainfalls. Today, most of the High Plains is irrigated by the vast Ogallala formation.
Impacts of Fire
Early Native Americans understood the use of fire to improve the grass lands of the panhandle. Because of this periodic burning of the plains, wildlife (mainly buffalo), did not have to leave the area to search for more nutrient-rich lands. The fire ecosystem has always played a vital role in the panhandle. Fire kept invader species of trees at bay, while enriching the grass lands. Due to human population growth in the High Plains, fire is no longer allowed to burn. As a result, the panhandle has seen a dramatic increase in the number of juniper and mesquite trees. Fires that occur today are much harder to control, because of overgrowth of grass fuel types.
The economy of the region is predominantly based on petroleum production and agriculture. Within the last decade, the Panhandle economy has become more diverse with additions such as services and high level technology.
Climate
January average low temperature is 19 degrees. July average high temperature is 91 degrees. Average rainfall is 20.4 inches.
Animals of the High Plains .
Black Tailed Prairie Dog
Habitat: Prairie dogs reside in underground tunnels known as "coteries" or "towns."
Burrowing owl
Habitat: grasslands and deserts
Swift Fox
Habitat: Buffalo grass,
bluestem, and wire grass
White-Tailed Deer
Habitat: Found in forests,
fields, and swamps
BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS
BIOTIC
Grass
Winter Fat
Bur Oak
Buffalograss
Swift Fox
Abiotic
Dirt
Rocks
Air
Water
Nutrients
WINE CUP :)
During the winter, when it grows in a low cluster,
with wide scalloped leaves, and the spring and summer,
when it sends out long stems for the flowers but also
produces thin, deeply-notched leaves.
Interrelationships between organisms.
The heron at the back of the carabao feeds on the ticks that suck the blood of the carabao. The heron gets food by eating the ticks. At the same time, the carabao gets cleaning of its parasites. Both heron and the carabao benefit from this kind of relationship.
3 References
tpwd.state.tx.us
akinspreapbiology.pbworks.com
www.texaspraire.org
Commensalism

-
Commensalism is a relationship wherein one participating organisms is benifited while the other is neigther helped nor harmed.
Mutualism-
Mutualism is a biological interaction between two organisms
As the bee or butterfly sips nectar from the flower, pollen gains sticks to their hairy legs and other parts of their body. When the insects goes to another flower to get nectar, it drops some of the pollen gains into the flower.
Parasitism-
Parasitism is a relationship wherein an organism gets the benefit and the other is harmed
Fleas and dog – fleas are insects that suck blood from the body of the dog. They also live on the body of the dog.
Predation-
Predation is a relationship wherein a smaller animal is killed and eaten by a bigger animal.
The hawk catches the fish for food
Frogs feed on insects.
PLANTS AND ITS ADAPTATIONS
CHOKEBERRY
adapted to a wide variety of soil.
Limiting Factors
-Over greasing water supply.
-Crop restriction.
Full transcript