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Transcript of Progressivism
They played an important role during the the 19th century even if there work was not recognized.
Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901 with his personality made him a popular president, he used his popularity through the people that received what he called a Square Deal. This term referred to a program of progressive reforms sponsored by his administration.
Progressivism Under Taft
Wilson's New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson managed to get some parts of his progressive platform passed but hat to give up others.
To protect social welfare.
To promote moral improvement.
To create economic reform.
To foster efficiency.
By the opening of the 1900's reformers pushed for a social reform movement. This movement is called the
Illinois Factory Act of 1893:
prohibited child labor
limited women's working hours.
Banning of alcoholic drinks.
Journalists that wrote stories about corruption and unfair practices in businless,
Robert M. Follette
as governor of Wisconsin, let the way in regulating big business.
gave voters the right to Propose a law
directly vote to
accept or reject a law by direct vote
voters could force a govn. official to face another election.
called for senators to be elected directly by the people instead of being elected be state law makers.
Women's job before the war
After the war
Farm women continued to work as always but as better-paying opportunities in towns and cities became available, more began to working outside the home.
Women without a formal education took jobs as domestic workers, cleaning and taking care of their families.
Women public life
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
Taft had been Roosevelts secretary of war and Roosevelt felt Taft would carry out his policies. Taft was elected in 1909 and he did continue many of the progressive prgrams.
His first problem was tariffs. Taft wanted to lower to lower tariffs. The revised bill did not lower tariffs much at all. His other problem was Conservationists like Gifford Pinchot.
Democrats that win in 1912
Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot Conservation For Land
Meaning was some land should be preserved as wilderness while other areas would be developed for the common good
The married women, worked at home and they didn't have paid jobs.
1/5 of American woman held jobs
25% of them worked in manufacturing
Meat Inspection Act
Passed in 1906, call for strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers
Roosevelt Handling Big Business
Roosevelt used the power of the government to help solve the nation's problems and to deal with the problem of trusts.
Trusts, or monopolies, first drove out by lowering their own prices. By 1900, trusts controlled about 80 percent of U.S. industries.
By doing that Roosevelt had the government sue harmful trusts under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. In all, he had filed 44 antitrust suits.
In 1902, about 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike and they refused to negotiate.
Pure Food And Drug Act
Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling
Roosevelt Treating African Americans
Roosevelt supported African Americans but he did not help them in general.
So Roosevelt signed the Newlands Act which funded irrigation projects that transformed dry wilderness into land suitable for agriculture
In 1909, black leaders, including W. E. B. Du Bois, founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP). The organization pushed for civil rights and racial equality.
Republican Party Splits
The two groups disagreed over Taft's support of political boss Joseph Cannon. Cannon was the Speaker of the House of the Representatives and he ran the House his own way.
They were paid only half as much as a man.
Stenographers and typists.
The 1912 election offered Americans four main choices: Wilson,Taft,Roosevelt and the socialist Eugene V. Debs.
Unmarried immigrant women and African American workers, did domestic labor.
Both Roosevelt and Wilson wanted to give the government a stronger role in the economy.
Wilson won the 1912 election. He also brought in a Democratic majority in Congress.
The bad working conditions (like the triangle Shirtwaist fire in NY that killed 146 young workers), caused working women to fight for reforms:
NWSA( National American Woman Suffrage Association) suffragists
Susan B.Anthony led the opposition.
NACW National Association of Colored Women.
Suffrage: Seneca Falls Convention to split whether or not support the 14 and 15 amendment (they didn't guaranteed the vote to any race of woman).
By 1912, Teddy Roosevelt had decided to run for a third term as a president after all.
Women Win Suffrage
Lucy Burns and Alice Paul formed the National Women's party and adopted more radical tactics such as around-the-clock picketing of the White House
Some of the picketers went to and even started a hunger strike. But it took WW1 to bring the vote.
A great number of women became active in supporting the war effort. Women ran committees, rolled bandages, and sold liberty bonds in order to raise funds for the war. Women felt more strongly than ever that they should have the right to vote.
In 1919 Congress passed the 19th Amendment. This amendment giving women the vote. Then it was ratified by the states the next year
Win the vote
They tried to convince all state legislatures
They went to court to clarify whether the provisions of the Fourteenth amendment meant women should be allowed to vote.
They pushed for a national constitution amendment.
Reforms supported by Wilson
Clayton Antitrust Act:
Made it more difficult for monopolies to form.
The people who ran a company could be held personally responsible if the company violated the law
Labor unions and farm organizations were not themselves to be considered trusts.
Federal trade Act FTC (federal trade commission) had the power to investigate businesses for the government.
Underwood Tariff: Lower tariffs.
Federal Reserve System: To obtain Credit From banks, they divided the country into 12 districts each one with a federal reserve bank.
Wilson backed away from civil rights: he opposed laws against lynching and he chose cabinet members who extended segregation.
Which law prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours?
How many women held jobs after the war?
What was the meat inspection act?
Which were the two Taft's problems?
How did Wilson backe away from civil rights?