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A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki

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Kelsi Vidal

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki

Japan Greenland Vikings Thovald was told by his brother Leif, "the grass tasted sweet and the rivers teemed with salmon" (p. 23). Thorfinn Karlsefni found "every stream was full of fish" and "there were plenty of animals of all kinds in the forest" (p. 24). Vinland - "Newfoundland" "Never before had they seen such people. The newcomers looked like animals - monstrous , hairy and pale skinned, their eyes the color of the sea and their hair the color of the sun" (p. 23). "Although this was a good country, there would always be terror and trouble from the people who lived there" (p. 24). England - Puritans "Starving in England, they would migrate to American where they would cultivate the Lord's garden" (p. 26) The Puritan errand into the wilderness was to create a city upon a hill with the eyes of the world upon their religious utopia" (p. 26) Massachusetts "Indian dreams had anticipated the coming of the strangers. Armed with bows and arrows, some of them approached the ship in their canoes, and let fly their long shafts at her...some stuck fast, and others dropped into the water. They wondered why it did not cry" (p. 27). "This was an era when the English were interacting with people they would define as the other in order to enable them to delineate the boundary between civilization and savagery" (p. 28). Ireland "The Irish, too, were depicted and degraded as the other - as savages, outside of civilization, and wild" (p. 131). "Nothing but fear and force can teach duty and obedience to this rebellious people. The new world order was English over Irish" (p. 29). "Feeling like the children of Israel, the Irish were driven from their beloved homeland by English tyranny, the British yoke enslaving Ireland" (p. 132). "For the living, the choice became clear: emigrate or face destitution or death. Their reason for coming to America was survival" (p. 136). "In America, the Irish found themselves stereotyped as ignorant and inferior, and forced to occupy the bottom rungs of employment" (p. 142) "Pushed from Ireland by economic hardships and famine, the immigrants were pulled to America by the prospect of jobs" (p.137). Boston, Massachusetts Africans "Virginia's rapidly rising tobacco economy generated an insatiable demand for labor" (p. 51). "The first African's to be landed in Virginia had probably been captured in wars or raids by enemy tribes before they were sold as slaves" (p. 51). Virginia "Africans were being degraded into a condition of servitude for life" (p.56). "Africans had become classified as property: slaves as well as their future children could be inherited and also presented as gifts" (p. 56) Native Americans "The Choctaws of Mississippi had been an agricultural people long before the arrival of whites" (p. 83) "The treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek and the land allotment program unleashed white expansion: speculators, farmers, and planters proceeded to take Indian lands 'legally', while absolving themselves from responsibility for Indian removal" (p. 85). "The Cherokees in Georgia were also dispossessed, their lands 'legally' moved into the market. The Cherokees were given a choice - leave the state or be subjugated by white rule" (p. 87). "It is with sorrow that we are forced by the authority of the white man to quit the scenes of our childhood" (p. 90). West of the Mississippi Texas - "Tejas" "The Americans immigrate constantly, finding no one to prevent them, and take possession of the 'sitio' (location) that best suits them without either asking or leave or going through any formality other than that of building their home" (p. 156). "War came in 1836 when some Americans in Texas began an armed insurrection against Mexican authority" (p. 157). "The North Americans have conquered whatever territory adjoins them" (p. 156). "The slaughter became methodical as the Texan rifleman poured steady fire into the packed, jostling ranks. After the battle, two Americans and and 630 Mexicans lay dead.Houston forced Santa Anna to cede Texas" (p. 157). The United States claimed that the southern border of Texas was the Rio Grande River, but Mexico insisted that it was 150 miles to the north at the Nueces River" (p. 158). "In 1845, the United States annexed the Lone Star Republic, and Mexico broke off Diplomatic relations" (p. 158). "Most of the Intruders had been in California for less than a year, and now they were claiming the territory as theirs" (p. 159). "Shortly after the rebels arrested General Vallejo and established the Bear Flag Republic, Commander John D. Sloat initiated the war in California: he sailed ship into Monterey Bay and declared California a possession of the United States" (p. 162). "Suddenly they were thrown among those who were strangers to their language, customs, laws, and habits. They were foreigners in their own land" (p. 164-165). "We find ourselves threatened by hordes of Yankee immigrants who have already begun to flock into our country and whose progress we cannot arrest" (p. 162). China "Many sought sanctuary from intense conflicts in China caused by the British Opium War, fleeing from the turmoil of peasant rebellions, and harsh economic conditions drove Chinese migrants to seek survival in America" (p. 178). "America possessed an alluring boundlessness, promising not only gold, but also opportunities for employment" (p. 179). "The construction of the Central Pacific Railroad line was a Chinese achievement" (p. 181). "The employers of Chinese labor argued that they did not intend to allow the migrants to remain and become thick in American society" (p. 187). "Like the blacks, Chinese men were viewed as a threat to racial purity" (p. 188). "For the second generation Chinese, education was viewed as a way to get up there" (p. 205). California - Gold Mountain Japan "Searching for a way out of this terrible plight, impoverished farmers were seized by an emigration netsu, or fever" (p. 233) "Seeking to avoid the problems of prostitution, gambling, and drunkenness that reportedly plagued the predominantly male Chinese community in the United States, the Japanese government promoted female emigration" (p. 234). "The Japanese crossed the Pacific driven by the dreams of making money" (p. 233). "Through a loophole in immigration policy, came over sixty thousand women, many as picture brides. Japanese women were increasingly entering the wage-earning workforce" (p. 234). "With tears in my eyes, I turn back to my homeland, taking one last look" (p. 237). "A planter in Hawaii could earn six times more than in Japan; in three years, a worker might save four hundred yen - an amount equal to ten years of earnings in Japan" (p. 233). "In America, money grows on trees" (p. 233). "I was bubbling over with great expectations...with the thought of the new world" (p. 235). New York City "Japanese immigrants had labored to build a great sugar industry in Hawaii" (p. 251). Hawaii "We have decided to permanently settle here, to incorporate ourselves with the body politique of Hawaii - to unite our destiny with that of Hawaii, sharing the prosperity and adversity of Hawaii with other citizens of Hawaii" (p. 243). Russia "A persecuted ethnic minority (the Jewish), they were forced to leave as settlers rather than sojourners; they felt like they could not return to their homeland" (p. 262). "You were actually always in fear because of big pogroms...I remember that scare...was in us all the time" (p. 263). New York City - Lower East Side "The Jewish immigrants began learning American ways in a process they called 'purification'. To become American meant to acquire 'civility' - a quality of middle-class refinement in behavior and tastes" (p. 280). "Determined to rise from 'greenhorns,' Jews passionately embraced the country's possibilities, striving to assimilate and become Americans" (p. 291). "A Different Mirror" by Ronald Takaki "America's dilemma has been the denial of our immensely varied self" (p. 437). "Today, we need to stop denying our wholeness as members of one humanity as well as one nation. We originally came from many different shores, and our diversity has been at the center of the making of America" (p. 438). "Let America be America again...Let American be the dream of dreamers dreamed...where equality is in the air we breathe" (p. 439). Mexico California Mexico Takaki, R. (2008). A different mirror: A history of multicultural america. New York: Back Bay Books; Little, Brown and Company.
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