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The Beginnings of Filipino Nationalism
Transcript of The Beginnings of Filipino Nationalism
British Invasion And Occupation (1761) Spain and France entered into a treaty of alliance against England’s ambition for supremacy.
Archbishop Manuel Rojo
=was the acting governor-general when the British, with 6,000 men including Sepoys from Bombay, bombarded Intramuros, Malate, Ermita, and Bagumbayan,(now Luneta) on September 22, 1762.
The Silang And The Palaris Revolts The Spanish defeat in the hand of the British opened the eyes of the Filipinos to the impermanence of Spanish rule in the country and to the fact that I t could be challenge by force of arms (1762) Diego Silang an Ilocano form Ilocos province rose in revolt. He declared himself “the King of Ilocos”
Gabriela Silang- wife of Diego took over the leadership and carried on the right courageously but she was later captured and hanged, along with 100 followers.
Basco's Economic Plans These widespread revolts alarmed the Spanish authorities . Not long after, reforms, especially in the economy, where introduced. However, the economy developed slowly for several reasons, such as;
(1) the incompetence of Spanish officials;
(2) graft and greed of the merchants and religious corporation s engaged in the Galleon Trade;
(3) restrictive economic policies which closed some parts of the country to other foreign countries ; and
(4) the constant quarrels between the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities assigned in the colony.
Jose Basco y Vargas
-(1778) who was appointed as governor- general of the Philippines, surveyed the economic condition of the colony and found it to be far from satisfactory.
Laissez-Faire And The Opening of Ports Laissez-faire or “let alone policy” in commercial and trading ventures by the Europeans soon caught the interest of the Spanish king. This policy gave full freedom to private individuals and firms' to engage in economic activities without much interference from the government . This also allowed for the entry of foreign firms into the country. In 1834, the king, realizing the fulfility of opposing modern trends in commerce and trade, opened Manila to foreign traders.
The Rise Of The “Filipino” Middle Class It was inevitable that with materials progress, social changes would follow. Somehow the fruits of these developments in trade and commerce benefitted the mestizos, particularly the Spanish and Chinese mestizos. As exports in agriculture increases, Inquilinos or the tenants in the haciendas and their families began to accurate wealth.
Middle Class- a group below the Aristocratic Spanish officials, families, and religious orders but higher or above the masses ( the poor uneducated Indios)
Ilustradors- the wealthy and highly educated Filipinos.
Insulares- the term, up to this period in late 19th century, actually applied only to Spaniards born in the Philippines.
Espanoles or Peninsulares- Spaniards born in Spain, working or residing in the country.
Florante at Laura- was the first Tagalog Publication in 1838 by Francisco Baltazar
Revolt by: Apolinario de la Cruz or “Hermano Pule” in Tayabas (now Quezon Province) in 1841.
Catalonan- revived from confradia teaching within the Catholic Churches.
The Education Of Some Filipinos The Spaniards in the Philippines founded many colleges for men and women. But these colleges and universities were exclusively for the Spaniards and the Spanish mestizos. These included San Juan De Letran, San Jose, San Felipe and others. The schools for women included the College of Santa Potenciana, Santa Isabel College, the Santa Rosa College, among others. It was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that these colleges, including the University of Santo Thomas, admitted natives.
Ilustrados- who would later ask embarrassing questions about the Spanish misdeeds, incompetence, in efficiency, greed, and corruption.
And most dangerously, they pushed the idea of the Indios as “Filipinos” with equal rights as the Spaniards in the country.
The Opening of The Suez Canal
The changes that took place in the second half of the nineteenth century had far-reaching effect on the Filipinos. One of these important changes was the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. This resulted in the shorter route and travel time between Spain and Philippines. Many Spaniards with progressive ideas migrate d to Philippines. Among them were exile creoles from Mexico like Valera and Novales, whose subversive ideas and activities advocated freedom and liberties.
Printed literature and magazines , plus the introduction of modern technology such as the mail(1854) , the telegraph (1873), the telephone, and the Manila-Dagupan railway(1390).
Liberalism In The Philippines (1858)- a revolution take place in Spain. The revolutionists were against the autocratic reign of Queen Isabel II.
Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre-(1869) he put into practice the liberal principles of the revolutionists in Spain. He showed his democratic way by living simply and and avoiding luxury, by dismissing the halberdiers of his place, and by walking the streets of Manila in civilian clothes.
De la Torre’s administration of the Philippines was significant because of the following reasons(1)he abolished the censorship of the press,(2) he abolish flogging as a punishment and (3) he solves the agrarian unrest in Cavite.