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Mineral Resources Of Pakistan

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Ibrahim Yousaf

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Mineral Resources Of Pakistan

Resources Of Metallic Minerals in Pakistan

NON-METALLIC MINERALS


Metallic Minerals


THANK YOU!

CONCLUSION

Modern techniques of exploration may yield precious base metals and rare elements

Many problems can be solved having fruitful results if:
Aforementioned measures are taken
Government pays proper attention to the mineral sector development


CONCLUSION

Although rich in minerals but their exploitation and development has been an issue mainly because of:
Lack of technology, infrastructure and funding
inadequate government policies
Widespread corruption

Long term and serious policies need to be implemented

Government can also play a vital role

Mineral Exploration Schemes

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa:

Malakand Chromite Project
Dir-Swat Talc & Fluorite Project
Abrasive Minerals
Lapidary Development Project

Balochistan:

Duddar Zinc/ Lead Project
Koh-I-Sultan Sulphur Project
Good Hope Area Coal Exploration
Azad Kashmir
Mohriwali Graphite Exploration Project


TYPES OF MINERALS

Metallic Minerals

Non-Metallic Minerals



CURRENT SCENARIO


About 52 minerals are under exploitation

Major production is of coal, rock salt and other industrial and construction minerals

Value addition in mineral sector is only by:
Limestone, coal, gypsum, sulphur, crude oil & natural gas


OVERVIEW OF MINERAL SECTOR IN PAKISTAN


Salt Range and Kala-Chitta hills
Famous for rock salt, gypsum and coal

Kohistan Magmatic Arc
Has metallic Minerals

Sherwan famous for gemstones and industrial rocks
Karakoram Block has various economic minerals

LITERATURE REVIEW

Overview of the Mineral Sector of Pakistan

Scope of Mining in Pakistan

Current Scenario

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan Mineral Corporation
Established in 1974
Exploration and marketing of minerals in Pakistan

Resource Corporation Development
Established in 1974
Investigation of Copper minerals in Saindak, Baluchistan

Gemstone Corporation of Pakistan
Established in 1979
Developing of gemstone resources





INTRODUCTION

Despite of all this, Pakistan imports metals, alloys and fertilizers

GDP contribution is mere 0.5%
Lack in infrastructure for exploitation
Some minerals are in inaccessible regions

Till date, 25-30 minerals are found to exist

Many still to be discovered

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan – A rich country in mineral resources

Coal, Copper, Marble, Granite, Gemstones and industrial rocks are the significant of the minerals in Pakistan

Most of the area of the country bears great potential for metallic and non-metallic minerals


CONCLUSION

National Minerals Policy 1995 needs to be implemented
To encourage indigenous production of minerals
Government to invest in exploration and development in the mining sector
Funds should be allocated for upgrading infrastructure and transportation in the mineral abundant zones
Machineries and other tools to be manufactured locally

The utilization of latest exploration techniques may help in exploration of undetected minerals



Mineral Exploration Schemes

Punjab:

Exploration of New Salt Areas, Salt Range
Salt Solution Mining Project, Dulmial
D. G. Khan Iron Ore Project
Khushab Bauxite Project

Sindh:

Lakhra Coal Exploration & Development Project
Nagar Parker China Clay
Northern Areas
Indus Sand Gold Project
Hunza Ruby Project.


Rock Salt

Pakistan has vast deposits of salt
The Salt Range was discovered before the Mughal Period. They are one of the largest deposits of the world

Occurrence
Khewra mines producing 0.4 million tons salt
Warcha Mines near Sargodha producing 50,000 tons
Sea water and sea lakes
Tharparkar in Sindh have large deposits




Sulphur

Uses
It is used in chemical and match industry

Occurrence
At extinct volcano in Koh-e-Sultan and at Sanni
District Kachi in Baluchistan
Mardan in KPK
Khairpur in Sindh

It is imported to satisfy our requirements


Celestite


It is a very important mineral

Uses
In signal rockets and flares
Tracer bullets, transportation warning fuses and fireworks
Manufacturing plastics, luminous paints and ceramics

Estimated Reserves are 30,000 tons
largest deposit is near Thano Bula Khan (Sindh)
Smallest deposit is found at Daud Khel



Bauxite


True Bauxite is not found in Pakistan
Rather aluminous rocks are found

Total Reserves in Pakistan are found to be about 74 million tons

Occurrence
Muzaffarabad and Kotli in Azad Kashmir
Central Salt Range
Loralai district in Baluchistan

Production for the last few years is 2,000 tons



Antimony


Stibnite is its chief source

Used as an alloy and in the chemical industry

Small quantity was produced in 1984-85 (6 Tons)
From Krinj mines (Kamalgol) at north of Chital Town

Estimated reserves in Pakistan are 12,000 tons


Copper


This mineral exists in several areas of Pakistan

Saindak deposits
Deposits are in eruptive zone in Baluchistan about 25 miles from north of Koh-i-Tuftan River

Resource Development Corporation in 1974
Was assigned the task of the development of its deposits

Many organizations have shown their interest
Romanian government
French-Canadian-Yugoslavian companies
Recently China expressed its interest


CURRENT SCENARIO


Current contribution to GDP of 0.5% can be increased by development and commercial exploitation of
Saindak & Reco Diq copper deposits
Duddar Zinc lead
Thar coal and Gemstone deposits

Exploitation of new gold and crude oil fields has got the attention of many foreign multinational companies who are ready to invest


SCOPE OF MINING IN PAKISTAN


In 1980s mining development was quite slow
Remoteness of the areas where minerals were found
Cost is added greatly to cost of exploration, production and transportation

Early 1990s
Mining was of little importance to economy

Mineral Production in Financial Year (FY) 1992
8.5 m Tons of limestone, 833,000 tons of rock salt
471,000 tons of gypsum, 6,333 tons of magnesite
937,000 tons of production of iron-ore



SCOPE OF MINING IN PAKISTAN


Baluchistan
Richest province of Pakistan in terms of minerals

Sindh
Rich coal deposits in Thar

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Rich in terms of gems

Mining of Minerals is a provincial issue
Except oil, gas and some minerals used in nuclear programs are controlled by federal authorities

OVERVIEW OF MINERAL SECTOR IN PAKISTAN


Country divided into eleven metal zones

Chaghi Raskoh Magmatic Arc
World class copper-gold deposits

Kirthar Thrust and Fold Belt
Famous for Coal deposits and decorative rocks

Suleiman Fold and Thrust Belt
Famous for gypsum and industrial rocks


INTRODUCTION

Mineral Corporation Board
Set up at federal level

Many agencies feel that too many agencies are involved in mining sector in Pakistan




NS Ali Hanif
NS Muhammad Ibrahim
NS Syed Manshoor


Marble

Found in wide range of colours
Uses
Mostly used for decorative purposes for buildings

Occurrence
Mallaghori near Peshawar (Best deposits)
Maneri, Gundani hills in Mardan and Nowshera and Swat in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Kala-Chitta and Attok districts in Punjab
Chaghi in Baluchistan and Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir


Limestone

Uses
Used in various industries, especially in cement manufacturing

Occurrence
Daudkhel and Wah in Punjab
Rohri and Karachi in Sindh

Cement factories have been established in limestone abundant areas


Gypsum

It is an important mineral
Uses
In making cement, plaster of Paris and fertilizers

Found in the shape of stone
Used in making paints, for checking water logging and salinity

Total reserves of 350 million tons in Pakistan
Jehlum, Dera Ghazi Khan and Mianwali in Punjab
Kohat and Dera Ismail Khan in KPK



Manganese


Minor mineral in Pakistan
Small amount was mined in 1980-81 (84 tons)

A considerable amount is imported
Used in steel industry

Found in three areas of Pakistan
The axial belt at Lasbela
Chaghi District of the Eruptive Zone
Galdanian



Iron Ore


Commercial exploitation has not been started yet
Low grade ores
availability in some inaccessible regions

Total reserves of iron ore in Pakistan are estimated to be over 430 million tons
Largest in Kalabagh of 309 million Tons
Chil Ghazi with 5.8 million tons of deposits
High grade iron has been located 70km north-east of Chitral






Chromite


The only metallic mineral produced on commercial in Pakistan

Uses
To manufacture engineering tools, stainless steel etc.
Put as lining in metallurgic furnaces

Occurrence in Pakistan
Harichand, north of Peshawar, Lasbela, at the flanks of Ras Koh in Baluchistan and in South Waziristan
But main chromite deposits are located in Muslimbagh



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