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Transcript of Design Movements
Design Movements (p198-202)
Arts and Crafts
Appreciation of beauty of materials: unique nature of materials such as the grain in oak
Resented ornamentation of machine-produced products
Hand produced products using craft skills
Richard Norman Shaw
The languid line
The formulation of new aesthetic values for a new urban lifestyle
Curvy 'whiplash' lines and stylised flowers
Languid feminine form
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Reducing form to the most essential elements by omitting decorative frills
The machine aesthetic using modern materials
Simple, geometrically pure forms and clean lines
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ziggurat (stepped pyramids)
Simple geometric forms
Walter Dorwin Teague
Consumerism and style
Celebrating speed and efficiency
Norman Bel Geddes
'Less is a bore!'
Expressive and individual as opposed to modernist functionalism
Humour and personality
Bold and colourful
Grew out of a
concern for the effects of industrialisation upon design
, traditional craftsmanship and the lives of ordinary 'working class' people.
Quality of mass-produced products was often overlooked and as a result poor-quality, over-decorated and often oversized imitations of traditional items of furniture were being produced, which are of no good to the majority.
William Morris, C.F.A Voysey and Richard Norman Shaw.
Morris placed great value on craftsmanship, simple forms and patterns inspired by nature and the beauty of natural materials.
They helped establish a number of
workers' guilds and societies
to break down barriers between architects, artists, designers and makers and pioneered new and unified approaches to design and decorative arts.
Their idea was to
empower the individual as a designer/maker of their own products.
Interiors were visually simplistic
Suitably proportioned furniture
Practical and clean living environment
was 'humbly' constructed: minimal ornate decoration
Designers often experimenting with different materials and new techniques in artistic ways
Small and highly ornate
were produced-unusual materials and precious metals
Plants, bird and
were a powerful source of inspiration
Stylised flower patterns -purity of approach
with motifs such as the heart symbolising friends
Colour and texture
To provide unity and focus
colour and nature
was particularly close
Architects and designers
preferred natural materials; stone, wood, wool and linen - locally available
Rich materials, highly decorated surfaces and strong colours tended to be concentrated in small areas
William Morris (1834-1896)
'Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful'
Arts and Crafts
Arts and Crafts
Morris was a poet, writer, designer and innovator in Arts and Crafts movement.
After Uni Morris and his friends formed their own company of designers and decorators with the emphasis placed upon traditional craftsmanship and natural materials.
Morris, Marshall, Faulkener & Co
specialised in producing stained glass, carvings, furniture, wallpaper, carpets and tapestries. They revolutionised public taste.
beliefs directly influenced his design philosophy
of simple, natural produces produced by the individual rather than mass produced by large-scale industry.
Arts and Crafts
'New art' was an international style of decoration and architecture that developed in the late 19th century. The name derived from the Maison de l'art Nouveau, an interior design gallery opened in Paris 1896.
Developed by a new generation of artist and designers who saw fashion as an art from appropriate to their modern age. The underlying principle of Art Nouveau was the
concept of a unity and harmony across the various arts
and crafts media and the
formulation of new aesthetic values
Modern urban life as we know it today was established - the idea of combining old tradition alongside new, combining a range of contradictory images and ideas. Many designers,architects and artists were
excited by new technologies and lifestyles
, while others embraced the past, spirit world, fantasy and myth.
Art Nouveau forms a bridge between Arts and Crafts movement and Modernism. There was a strong link between decorative and modern that can be seen in work of individual designers. Many designers
appreciated the benefits of mass production
and other technological advances and embraced the aesthetic possibilities of new materials. In architecture glass and wrought iron were often creatively combined in preference to traditional stone and wood.
Others developed the shoddiness of mass-produced machine-made goods and aimed to
elevate the decorative arts to the level of fine art.
Heavily influenced by natural form and interpreted these into sinuous, elongated, curvy 'whiplash' lines and stylised flowers, leaves, roots, buds and seedpods
Exotic insects and peacock feathers often featured
The female form
Frequently referred to as 'feminine art' due to its frequent use of languid female figures in pre-Raphaelite pose with long, flowing hair
Arts and artefacts of Japan were a crucial inspiration for Art Nouveau
Japanese woodcuts, with asymmetircal outlines and the minimal grid structures of Japanese interiors prvided vertical lines and height
Celtic, Arabian and ancient Greek patterns provided inspiration for intertwined ribbon patterns.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
Born in Glasgow, Mackintosh was interested in a career as an architect and at 16
became an apprentice
studying at the same time at the Glasgow School of Art.
It was here that he met like minded students and formed the
. Through their paintings, graphics, architecture, interior design , furniture, glass and metalwork they created the Glasgow style of Art Nouveau.
In 1889 Mackintosh joined the firm of
Honeyman & Keppie
where he became a partner from 1904-1913. During this period his most important architectural and decorative work was created. He was allowed a
degree of autonomy
within the firm, developing his own style.
In 1896 Mackintosh won the competition for the
new School of Art in Glasgow
which gave him an international reputation.
His goal to create
is expressed through his interior designs. The
of architectural elements, furniture, furnishings and decoration produced highly aesthetic yet practical domestic and commercial environments.
His style incorporated a
contrast between strong right angles and floral-inspired decorative motifs with subtle curves
, along with some references to traditional Scottish architecture.
His designs for a
'House for an Art Lover'
in 1901 brought him great praise. In tribute to his thoroughly modern style the house was built in the 1990's.
Other notable designs include
, 1900 and
The Hill House
, 1902, and The
Willow Tea Rooms
Bauhaus and De Stijl are the most known groups within the movement of 'modernism' and design schools for both were formed post WW.
The impact of war on the infrastructure of Europe and the resulting need to rebuild presented them with an ideal opportunity.
The idea was a range of productive workshops where students were actively encouraged to be
and trained to work with industry -
carpentry, metal, pottery and glass/mural painting, weaving, printing and wood and stone sculpture.
Bauhaus produced prototypes for mass production and was deemed controversial in its design.
De Stijl focused more on rectangular linear form and primary colours to produce abstract artistic pieces, evident in furniture, architecture and interiors.
Mondrian, Rietveld and Hoff all major contributors.
'Form follows function'
Bauhaus featured functional design as opposed to highly decorative design.
Produced high-end functional products
Simple, geometrically pure forms, with clean lines and no unnecessary clutter
'Products for a machine age'
Products respected the use of modern materials, such as tubular steel
Mechanised mass production processes
Products looked like they had been made by machines and wer not based upon natural forms
'Everyday object for everyday people'
Consumer goods should be functional, cheap and easily mass produced
For ordinary working-class people to afford
Popular themes in Art Deco were
tapezoidal, zig-zagged, geometric fan motifs
. Sunburst motifs, for example, were widely used in such varied contexts as ladies' shoes, radiator grilles, the auditorium of the
Radio City Music Hall
spire of the Chrysler Building
The simplified sculptural of African, Egyptian and Aztec Mexican art and architecture influenced contemporary designers to omit inessential detail.
The discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922 and subsequent exhibition sparked the world's interest in all that was ancient Egyptian and Art Deco responded with some quite literal interpretations.
The Art Deco style
celebrates the machine age
through explicit use of
(aluminium, glass and stainless steel), symmetry and repetition.
Architecture celebrated man's technological achievements in building skyscrapers and ocean liners
Eileen Gray (1878-1976)
Gray was born in Ireland to a wealthy family of artists and began as a painter.
She left painting to
study lacquer work
under the guidance of Japanese artist Sugarwara and successfully combined lacquer and
rare woods, geometric abstraction
and Japanese inspired motifs into her work.
During WW1 she stayed in London and Paris until 1919 when she worked as an independent furniture designer, and thereafter as an interior decorator.
Walter Gropius (Bauhaus) was one of her admirers
. In 1922 she opened the Jean Desert gallery as a showcase for her own designs.
Persuaded by Le Corbusier (Modernism) and her lover Badovici, she turned her
interests to architecture
. In 1924 Gray and Badovici began work on their vacation house,
E-1027 in south France
. This is considered to be her 1st major work,
blurring the border between architecture and decoration
E-1027 is a codename for E-Eileen, 10-Jean, 2-Badovici, 7-Gray. She designed the furniture as well- her design of the
E-1027 circular glass table was inspired by Marcel Breur's (Bauhaus)
experiments with tubular stainless steel. Both pieces are still design classics.
Widely used to describe architectural and decorative arts style that emerged in France in the 1920's. Took its name from the 1925
Exposition des Arts Decoratifs
held in Paris to celebrate the arrival of a new style in applied arts and architecture.
It was an eclectic style that drew on tradition and yet simultaneously celebrated the mechanised, modern world. It
embraced both hand-crafted and machine production, exclusive works of high art and mass-produced products in affordable materials
Art Deco reflected the ever widening needs of the contemporary world. Unlike the stark functionalist principals of modernism, it responded to the human need for pleasure and escape.
Art Deco was an opulent syle, and its lavishness is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity imposed by WW1. Geometric forms and patterns, bright colours, sharp edges, and the use of expensive materials such as enamel, ivory, bronze and polished stone are well known characteristics of this style, but the use of chrome, coloured glass and Bakelite also enabled Art Deco designs to be made at low cost.
Influenced by the
modern aerodynamic designs
, Streamline, Modern designs derived from
advancing technologies in aviation and high-speed transportation
. This was a period of new materials and
that could produce more refined products. It was an age when people were looking excitedly to the future and even into outer space.
Streamlining is the shaping of an object to reduce the amount of drag or resistance to motion through a stream of air. The basic shape should be rounded at the front and smooth to the back to allow air to flow smoothly over it.
Aerodynamics had been considered by automotive designers since the turn of the century, but wasn't until the
1930's that new materials and processes were available for cost-effective production
. Soon both American and European industrial designers were producing experimental 'tear-drop' based concepts.
Although efficient aerodynamics are not a key feature of many products, the combination of
streamline form and modern materials made them stand out from
their competitors and therefore more appealing to a growing consumer society;
Art Deco even adopted some streamline techniques.
1950's came the 'Space Age' and the 'Atomic Age' and with it the 'Googie' style of architecture
- epitomises the spirit of a generation excitedly looking forwards to a bright, technological and futuristic age.
With the sleek, efficient forms or airliners and marine life as inspiration, the form adopted as perfect aerodynamic ism was that of the teardrop-round end at the front
New aesthetic direction and guide the design of modern products
Science fiction provided optimism for a new and better future with sleek rocket shapes and atom designs
The term 'post-modernism' was used to
criticise the functionalism of the modernism movement
and to rebel against the simplicity of form and purely functional nature of Modernism.
The movement of post-modernism began with architecture,
as a reaction against the perceived blandness and hostility
present in modernist architecture as preached by Bauhaus. Its philosophy of an
ideal perfection, harmony of form and function and dismissal of decoration
was at odds with contemporary designers who wanted
individualism and personality back in design
Out of this period came the Memphis Group
comprising Italian designers and architects who created a series of highly influential products in the 1980's. Founder, Ettore Sotsass,
challenge the idea that products had to follow conventional shapes, colours, textures and patterns
. They drew inspiration from Art Deco, Pop Art, Kitsch (1950's) and futuristic themes; in contrast to so called 'good design'.
The work of the Memphis Group has been described as vibrant, eccentric and ornamental. It was conceived by the group as a fad, that ultimately end. In 1988, Sotsass dismantled the group.
Humour and personality
Products were bright and colourful like children's toys, with an attempt to give personality
By providing personality in products it made them more appealing to the consumer who wanted to express individuality
Designs that take inspiration from past movements and styles and reinterpret them in a modern way
Alternatively, the copying of old designs but manufactured from modern materials and incorporating modern technology to satisfy the trend in nostalgia
Development of architecture where the surface structure of a building is distorted so that it becomes non-rectangular
The finished visual abstract and no-symmetric appearance gives the impression of controlled chaos
The reaction of Modernism (Bauhaus/De Stijl) work was similar to that formed of the later Memphis design group in the 1980s.
Tubular steel was big in Modernism, but with the addition of bent plywood formed work well known by Marcel Breuer, and Charles and Ray Eames.
The use of plywood allowed for continuous unbroken curves, also seen in the work of Alvar Aalto and Arne Jacobsen.
Marcel Breuer - Bauhaus Wassily chair 1925 vs "long chair" 1936
Consider the style points of each design movement
What would a table look like designed under each movement?
Sketch out a few ideas for each
Read through designers p203-208.
You will be presenting your designer on Monday 10th September to the class.