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Transcript of Design Movements
Arts and Crafts
Fitness for purpose
Honesty in design and making the return to the designer-craftsman as a reaction against industrialization
Natural forms and materials
Bauhaus - Modernism
The languid line
The formulation of new aesthetic values for a new urban lifestyle
Curvy 'whiplash' lines and stylised flowers
Languid feminine form
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Reducing form to the most essential elements by omitting decorative frills
The machine aesthetic using modern materials
Simple, geometrically pure forms and clean lines
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Opulent architectural and decorative arts style in reaction to post-war austerity
Zig-zagged, geometric fan motifs
Symmetry and repetition
Inspiration from ancient Egypt
Walter Dorwin Teague
Consumerism and style
New prosperity and widened consumer choice
Celebrating speed and efficiency
Norman Bel Geddes
'Less is a bore!'
Expressive and individual as opposed to modernist functionalism
Humour and personality
Grew out of a
concern for the effects of industrialisation upon design
, traditional craftsmanship and the lives of ordinary 'working class' people.
Quality of mass-produced products was often overlooked and as a result poor-quality, over-decorated and often oversized imitations of traditional items of furniture were being produced, which are of no good to the majority.
John Ruskin and
were designers of the time. Ruskin examined the r
elationship between art, society and labour
. Morris put Ruskin's philosophies into practice, placing great value on craftsmanship, simple forms and patterns inspired by nature and the beauty of natural materials.
They helped establish a number of
workers' guilds and societies
to break down barriers between architects, artists, designers and makers and pioneered new and unified approaches to design and decorative arts.
Their idea was to
empower the individual as a designer/maker of their own products.
Interiors were visually simplistic
Suitably proportioned furniture
Practical and clean living environment
was 'humbly' constructed: minimal ornate decoration
Designers often experimenting with different materials and new techniques in artistic ways
Small and highly ornate
were produced-unusual materials and precious metals
Plants, bird and
were a powerful source of inspiration
Stylised flower patterns -purity of approach
with motifs such as the heart symbolising friends
Colour and texture
To provide unity and focus
colour and nature
was particularly close
Architects and designers
preferred natural materials; stone, wood, wool and linen - locally available
Rich materials, highly decorated surfaces and strong colours tended to be concentrated in small areas
William Morris (1834-1896)
'Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful'
Arts and Crafts
Arts and Crafts
Morris was a poet, writer, designer and innovator in Arts and Crafts movement.
At Uni Morris was
influenced by the writing of Ruskin
, who praised the art of medieval craftsmen, sculptors and carvers whom he believed were free to express their creative individualism.
After Uni Morris and his friends formed their own company of designers and decorators with the emphasis placed upon traditional craftsmanship and natural materials.
Morris, Marshall, Faulkener & Co
specialised in producing stained glass, carvings, furniture, wallpaper, carpets and tapestries. They revolutionised public taste.
In the 1870s Morris became upset by Disraeli and the subsequent Gladstone Liberal Government. In 1884 Morris co-formed the
He continued to write pamphlets, socialist literature on street corners, went on speaking tours and participated in strikes. His
beliefs directly influenced his design philosophy
of simple, natural produces produced by the individual rather than mass produced by large-scale industry.
Morris died in 1896 but the business continued until 1940 when a textile company bought many of his
designs for fabric and wallpapers
, which can still be found in production today.
Arts and Crafts
'New art' was an international style of decoration and architecture that developed in the late 19th century. The name derived from the Maison de l'art Nouveau, an interior design gallery opened in Paris 1896.
Developed by a new generation of artist and designers who saw fashion as an art from appropriate to their modern age. The underlying principle of Art Nouveau was the
concept of a unity and harmony across the various arts
and crafts media and the
formulation of new aesthetic values
Modern urban life as we know it today was established - the idea of combining old tradition alongside new, combining a range of contradictory images and ideas. Many designers,architects and artists were
excited by new technologies and lifestyles
, while others embraced the past, spirit world, fantasy and myth.
Art Nouveau forms a bridge between Arts and Crafts movement and Modernism. There was a strong link between decorative and modern that can be seen in work of individual designers. Many designers
appreciated the benefits of mass production
and other technological advances and embraced the aesthetic possibilities of new materials. In architecture glass and wrought iron were often creatively combined in preference to traditional stone and wood.
Others developed the shoddiness of mass-produced machine-made goods and aimed to
elevate the decorative arts to the level of fine art.
Heavily influenced by natural form and interpreted these into sinuous, elongated, curvy 'whiplash' lines and stylised flowers, leaves, roots, buds and seedpods
Exotic insects and peacock feathers often featured
The female form
Frequently referred to as 'feminine art' due to its frequent use of languid female figures in pre-Raphaelite pose with long, flowing hair
Arts and artefacts of Japan were a crucial inspiration for Art Nouveau
Japanese woodcuts, with asymmetircal outlines and the minimal grid structures of Japanese interiors prvided vertical lines and height
Celtic, Arabian and ancient Greek patterns provided inspiration for intertwined ribbon patterns.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
Born in Glasgow, Mackintosh was interested in a career as an architect and at 16
became an apprentice
studying at the same time at the Glasgow School of Art.
It was here that he met like minded students and formed the
. Through their paintings, graphics, architecture, interior design , furniture, glass and metalwork they created the Glasgow style of Art Nouveau.
In 1889 Mackintosh joined the firm of
Honeyman & Keppie
where he became a partner from 1904-1913. During this period his most important architectural and decorative work was created. He was allowed a
degree of autonomy
within the firm, developing his own style.
In 1896 Mackintosh won the competition for the
new School of Art in Glasgow
which gave him an international reputation.
His goal to create
is expressed through his interior designs. The
of architectural elements, furniture, furnishings and decoration produced highly aesthetic yet practical domestic and commercial environments.
His style incorporated a
contrast between strong right angles and floral-inspired decorative motifs with subtle curves
, along with some references to traditional Scottish architecture.
His designs for a
'House for an Art Lover'
in 1901 brought him great praise. In tribute to his thoroughly modern style the house was built in the 1990's.
Other notable designs include
, 1900 and
The Hill House
, 1902, and The
Willow Tea Rooms
Modernist architects and designers rejected the old style of designing based upon natural form and materials. They believed in
'the machine aesthetic'
celebrated new technology, mechanised industry and modern materials
that symbolised the new 21st century.
Modernist designers typically
moved away from motifs and embellishment
of surfaces with 'art' preferring to
emphasise the materials used and pure geometrical forms.
Modernist principles soon spread across Europe. Groups were set up, such as
in the Netherlands,
in Russia and
Le Corbusier, a French architect, thought that building should function as machines for living in, where architecture should be treated like the mass production of products. This changed the way building looked, resulting in many
high-rise blocks of flats with repetitive 'cubes'
as living spaces.
Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe adopted the motto
'less is more'
to describe his minimalist aesthetic of flattening and emphasising the building's frame,
eliminating interior walls and adopting open-plan living spaces.
Bauhaus is the most significant group within the movement of 'modernism'.
The German economy was in a state of collapse following defeat in WWI. A new school of art and design was opened in Weimar to help rebuild the country and form a
new social order
. Walter Gropius headed the institute calling it Bauhaus - "house for building".
The idea was a range of productive workshops where students were actively encouraged to be
and trained to work with industry -
carpentry, metal, pottery and glass/mural painting, weaving, printing and wood and stone sculpture.
Gropius saw necessity in
, where eventually craftsmen directed classes and production together to remove any distinction between fine arts and applied arts.
Bauhaus produced prototypes for mass production
The school disbanded in 1933 when Hitler and the Nazi party rose to power. Many Bauhaus leaders, including Gropius, emigrated to US to avoid persecution, and continued to practise. The term international style' was applied to the American form of Bauhaus architecture.
'Form follows function'
Bauhaus featured functional design as opposed to highly decorative design.
Produced high-end functional products
Simple, geometrically pure forms, with clean lines and no unnecessary clutter
'Products for a machine age'
Products respected the use of modern materials, such as tubular steel
Mechanised mass production processes
Products looked like they had been made by machines and wer not based upon natural forms
'Everyday object for everyday people'
Consumer goods should be functional, cheap and easily mass produced
For ordinary working-class people to afford
Marcel Breuer (1902-1981)
Born in Hungary and worked in an architects office in Vienna before going to Weimar to study at
Bauhaus from 1920-1924
He became the manager of the furniture workshop, stressing the combination of art and technology, and created his
best known piece, later known as the 'Wassily' chair
as a prototype was built for Wassily Kandinksy's home, a lecturer at Bauhaus.
The chair was revolutionary in the use of the materials -
bent steel tubes and leather, and methods of manufacturing
. The design was only technologically feasible because a German steel manufacturer had recently perfected a process for producing seamless steel tubing. The
chair has been mass produced since the 1960's and is still available today as a classic design
In 1973, Breuer emigrated to the US and became a professor at Harvard.
In 1946 he founded his own company in NY, Marcel Breuer & Associates, which he managed until retiring in 1976.
Popular themes in Art Deco were
tapezoidal, zig-zagged, geometric fan motifs
. Sunburst motifs, for example, were widely used in such varied contexts as ladies' shoes, radiator grilles, the auditorium of the
Radio City Music Hall
spire of the Chrysler Building
The simplified sculptural of African, Egyptian and Aztec Mexican art and architecture influenced contemporary designers to omit inessential detail.
The discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922 and subsequent exhibition sparked the world's interest in all that was ancient Egyptian and Art Deco responded with some quite literal interpretations.
The Art Deco style
celebrates the machine age
through explicit use of
(aluminium, glass and stainless steel), symmetry and repetition.
Architecture celebrated man's technological achievements in building skyscrapers and ocean liners
Eileen Gray (1878-1976)
Gray was born in Ireland to a wealthy family of artists and began her university career at the Slade School of Fine Arts in London as a painter. She eventually left painting to
study lacquer work
under the guidance of Japanese artist Sugarwara. In 1913, she held her 1st exhibition. She successfully combined lacquer and
rare woods, geometric abstraction
and Japanese inspired motifs into her work.
During WW1 she stayed in London and Paris until 1919 when she worked as an independent furniture designer, and thereafter as an interior decorator.
Walter Gropius (Bauhaus) was one of her admirers
. In 1922 she opened the Jean Desert gallery as a showcase for her own designs.
Persuaded by Le Corbusier (Modernism) and her lover Badovici, she turned her
interests to architecture
. In 1924 Gray and Badovici began work on their vacation house,
E-1027 in south France
. This is considered to be her 1st major work,
blurring the border between architecture and decoration
E-1027 is a codename for E-Eileen, 10-Jean, 2-Badovici, 7-Gray. She designed the furniture as well- her design of the
E-1027 circular glass table was inspired by Marcel Breur's (Bauhaus)
experiments with tubular stainless steel. Both pieces are still design classics.
Le Corbusier loved Gray's house, so much so that he added is own painting series of colourful murals tot he white walls, which she considered as vandalism.
Widely used to describe architectural and decorative arts style that emerged in France in the 1920's. Took its name from the 1925
Exposition des Arts Decoratifs
held in Paris to celebrate the arrival of a new style in applied arts and architecture.
It was an eclectic style that drew on tradition and yet simultaneously celebrated the mechanised, modern world. It
embraced both hand-crafted and machine production, exclusive works of high art and mass-produced products in affordable materials
Art Deco reflected the ever widening needs of the contemporary world. Unlike the stark functionalist principals of modernism, it responded to the human need for pleasure and escape.
Art Deco was an opulent syle, and its lavishness is attributed to reaction to the forced austerity imposed by WW1. Geometric forms and patterns, bright colours, sharp edges, and the use of expensive materials such as enamel, ivory, bronze and polished stone are well known characteristics of this style, but the use of chrome, coloured glass and Bakelite also enabled Art Deco designs to be made at low cost.
Influenced by the
modern aerodynamic designs
, Streamline, Modern designs derived from
advancing technologies in aviation and high-speed transportation
. This was a period of new materials and
that could produce more refined products. It was an age when people were looking excitedly to the future and even into outer space.
Streamlining is the shaping of an object to reduce the amount of drag or resistance to motion through a stream of air. The basic shape should be rounded at the front and smooth to the back to allow air to flow smoothly over it.
Aerodynamics had been considered by automotive designers since the turn of the century, but wasn't until the
1930's that new materials and processes were available for cost-effective production
. Soon both American and European industrial designers were producing experimental 'tear-drop' based concepts.
Although efficient aerodynamics are not a key feature of many products, the combination of
streamline form and modern materials made them stand out from
their competitors and therefore more appealing to a growing consumer society;
Art Deco even adopted some streamline techniques.
1950's came the 'Space Age' and the 'Atomic Age' and with it the 'Googie' style of architecture
- epitomises the spirit of a generation excitedly looking forwards to a bright, technological and futuristic age.
With the sleek, efficient forms or airliners and marine life as inspiration, the form adopted as perfect aerodynamic ism was that of the teardrop-round end at the front
New aesthetic direction and guide the design of modern products
Science fiction provided optimism for a new and better future with sleek rocket shapes and atom designs
Raymond Loewy (1893-1986)
One of the best known industrial designers of the 20th century. Born in France, he spent most of his career in the US where he influenced countless aspects of American life, from transportation to commercial art.
In 1929 a British manufacturer commissioned him to improve on of his products. In 3 days, Loewy designed the shell that was to be the case for these duplicate machines for the next 40 years. He was the 1st designer to transform the look of a product by streamlining, which he referred to as 'beauty through function and simplification'.
Loewy believed that corporations could
hire industrial designers to provide outside advice on the development of their product
s; much like how he did in 1929. He demonstrated the practical benefits derived from his functional styling, stating:
The 1930's brought his most notable designs for the Pennsylvania Railroad, the GG-1.
Using welding and rivets to create the shell resulted in an improved appearance, simplified maintenance and reduced manufacturing cost= the efficiency of industrial design.
Loewy also started a relationship with US car-maker
Studebaker, producing the iconic bullet-nosed
cars as well as modernising their logo design. He also advocated lower and leaner, more fuel-efficient cars long before fuel economy became a concern. He was still working for Studebaker in 1960's when they launched the 'Avanti'.
As a commercial artist he is credited with designing the 'lucky strike' packaging. By changing the b
ackground from green to white he reduced printing costs
by eliminating the need for green dye. He also added the red Lucky Strike target on both sides which increased the product visibility and sales.
From 1967-1973 Loewy was
commissioned by NASA as a habitability consultant to design the interior living space
for the Saturn-Apollo and Skylab spaceships.
"Success finally came when we were able to convince some creative men that good appearance was a saleable commodity, that it often cut costs, enhanced a product's prestige, raised corporate profits, benefited the customer and increased employment"
The term 'post-modernism' was first coined by architect Charles Jencks. He used it to
criticise the functionalism of the modernism movement
and to describe the eclectic new design styles behind developed by a whole range of contemporary architects and designers.
The term is still argued about today as it doesn't seem to encompass the wide range of contemporary thinking and design styles.
The movement of post-modernism began with architecture,
as a reaction against the perceived blandness and hostility
present in modernist architecture as preached by Bauhaus. Its philosophy of an
ideal perfection, harmony of form and function and dismissal of decoration
was at odds with contemporary designers who wanted
individualism and personality back in design
Out of this period came the Memphis Group
comprising Italian designers and architects who created a series of highly influential products in the 1980's. Founder, Ettore Sotsass,
challenge the idea that products had to follow conventional shapes, colours, textures and patterns
. They drew inspiration from Art Deco, Pop Art, Kitsch (1950's) and futuristic themes; in contrast to so called 'good design'.
The work of the Memphis Group has been described as vibrant, eccentric and ornamental. It was conceived by the group as a fad, that ultimately end. In 1988, Sotsass dismantled the group.
Humour and personality
Products were bright and colourful like children's toys, with an attempt to give personality
By providing personality in products it made them more appealing to the consumer who wanted to express individuality
Designs that take inspiration from past movements and styles and reinterpret them in a modern way
Alternatively, the copying of old designs but manufactured from modern materials and incorporating modern technology to satisfy the trend in nostalgia
Development of architecture where the surface structure of a building is distorted so that it becomes non-rectangular
The finished visual abstract and no-symmetric appearance gives the impression of controlled chaos
Philippe Starck (1949-)
Starck is a
French designer and probably the best-known designer
in the New Design style. His designs have been well publicised in the media and include a diverse range, from spectacular interior designs to mass-produced consumer goods such as toothbrushes chairs and even houses.
Starck has worked independently since 1975. He rose to fame in
1982 with this interior designs for the French President's
private apartments. Since then has collaborated with multinational companies on the design of packaging and relatively inexpensive produces such a mouse for Microsoft.
Starck's products are often
stylised, streamlined and organic
in appearance. They
possess humour and he often christens them with a name
to bring them life and give each personality.
He values new technologies and has always possessed a taste for innovation, with a conviction that
'it's better to make a creative mistake than a stagnant work in good taste'.
conscious of sustainability and products are often light and economical
in their use of energy and materials, from production to consumption, packaging and transportation.
Starck's work for the Italian company Alessi has produced some of the best-known icons for the late 20th century.