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Anatomy & Physiology: The Muscular System

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james donahue

on 3 November 2016

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Muscular System

wrapped by epimysium
wrapped by perimysium
wrapped by endomysium
Muscle

Fascicle

Fiber

Fibril

Filaments
densly packed, rodlike contractile elements
comprise most of the muscle volume
repeating series of dark bands (A) and light bands (I)
The Muscular System
There are three types of muscle:
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
lining the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tract, tunica media of blood vessels and the iris of the eye
attached to bones
the myocardium
(V)
(I)
(I)
Muscle tissue is:
excitable
contractile
extensible
elastic
able to receive stimuli
able to shorten forcibly
able to be stretched
able to recoil to original length
Each muscle is composed of muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue.
The three connective
tissue sheaths are:
epimysium
perimysium
endomysium
actin and myosin
a group of filaments
a group of fibrils
a group of fibers
Muscle Fiber
a muscle fiber = a muscle cell
multinucleated
can lift up to 70 lbs
wrapped by a sarcolemma (cell membrane)
Fibril
Sarcomere
the smallest unit of a muscle
defined as the space between adjacent Z-lines
composed of the filaments actin and myosin
Myosin - the "thick" filament
composed of two parts
tails
heads (AKA - cross bridges)
"Zoom In A Hot Mustang"
Actin - the "thin" filament
possess binding sites for
myosin cross bridges
the sites are blocked by
troponin and tropomyosin
The arrangement of the filaments
Other components
sarcoplasmic reticulum AKA - endoplasmic reticulum
terminal cisternae
transverse tubules (T-tubes)
The Sliding Filament Model
The Goal
actin and myosin sliding past each other shortening the sarcomere
Muscle Metabolism
Thin filament
ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) released
Myosin head
(low-energy configuration)
Thick filament
Myosin head
(high-energy configuration)
As ATP is split into ADP and Pi, cocking of the myosin head occurs
As new ATP attaches to the myosin head, the cross bridge detaches
Working stroke—the myosin head pivots and bends as it pulls on the actin filament, sliding it toward the M line
Myosin cross bridge attaches to the actin myofilament
Be sure you can:
Can you label this sarcomere?
a group of fascicles
How do muscles get bigger?
Muscle Fiber Types
Oxidative
oxygen required
rich in mitochondria
lots of capillary beds
rich in myoglobin
thinner and weaker
slow to fatigue
high endurance
Glycolytic
oxygen not required
few capillary beds
low myoglobin
few mitochondria
thick and strong
quick to fatigue
low endurance
www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9a-ru2ES6Y
Myostatin
but
Is there a third muscle fiber type?
1. fast-twitch glycolytic
2. slow-twitch oxidative
3. fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic?
Compared to fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, what
would that look like?
- greater blood supply
- more mitochondria
- more myoglobin
- slightly smaller
Full transcript