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Queen Victoria's Family Tree
Transcript of Queen Victoria's Family Tree
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Prince of Wales
Caroline of Brunswick
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg
Duke of York
Princess Royal of Prussia
Duke of Clarence
Duke of Kent
Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Sussex
Lady Augusta Murray
Duke of Cambridge
Augusta of Hesse-Cassel
2 other sons
and 6 daughters
King of Hanover
Duke of Cambridge
Duke Edinburgh and Coburg
Duke of Connaught
Duke of Albany
England's longest-ruling monarch before Queen Victoria
King George III ascended the British throne in 1760.
He married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
During his 59-year reign, he pushed through a British victory in the Seven Years' War.
He led England's successful resistance to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.
He presided over the loss of the American Revolution.
He spent his last decade in a fog of insanity and blindness.
King of Great Britain and Ireland (1820–30), eldest son and successor of George III.
In 1785 he married Maria Anne Fitzherbert, a Roman Catholic. The marriage was illegal, however; and in 1795, he made a political marriage with Caroline of Brunswick.
In constant and open opposition to his father, George associated closely with the Whigs, particularly Charles James Fox.
As regent and as king, George was hated for his extravagance and dissolute habits.
During his reign the monarchy lost a significant amount of power.
George's only legitimate child, Charlotte Augusta.
George was succeeded by his brother William IV.
William IV was the third son of George III and the brother of George IV.
At the age of 13, William became a midshipman and began a career in the Royal Navy. In 1789, he was made Duke of Clarence.
Between 1791 and 1811 he lived with his mistress, the actress Mrs. Jordan, and the growing family of their children known as the Fitzclarences. William married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen in 1818, but their children died in infancy.
William became heir apparent at the age of 62 when his older brother died.
William died a month after his niece, Victoria, had come of age, thus avoiding another regency.
Queen Victoria was queen of Great Britain from 1837 to 1901.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era.
It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.
In 1840, she married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. They would have four sons and five daughters together.
Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".
Queen Victoria died near Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, and was succeeded by her son, Edward VII.
King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Princess Charlotte of Wales was the only child of George, Prince of Wales (later to become King George IV) and Caroline of Brunswick.
Had she outlived her father and her grandfather, King George III, she would have become Queen of the United Kingdom, but she died following childbirth at the age of 21.
Prince George left most of Charlotte's care to governesses and servants, but only allowed her limited contact with Princess Caroline, who eventually left the country.
After a year and a half of happy marriage to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Charlotte died after giving birth to a stillborn son.
Charlotte's death set off tremendous mourning among the British, who had seen her as a sign of hope and a contrast both to her unpopular father and to her grandfather, whom they deemed mad.
As she had been King George III's only legitimate grandchild, there was considerable pressure on the King's unwed sons to marry. King George III's fourth son, Edward, Duke of Kent, fathered the eventual heir, Queen Victoria.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha later, The Prince Consort, was the husband of Queen Victoria.
At the age of 20 he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria.
At first, Albert felt constrained by his position as consort, which did not confer any power or duties upon him.
Over time he adopted many public causes, such as educational reform and a worldwide abolition of slavery, and took on the responsibilities of running the Queen's household, estates and office.
Albert aided in the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to show less partisanship in her dealings with Parliament—although he actively disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary.
He died at the early age of 42, plunging the Queen into a deep mourning that lasted for the rest of her life
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Beatrice's childhood coincided with Queen Victoria's grief following the death of her husband, Albert, Prince Consort, on December 14, 1861.
As Beatrice's elder sisters married and left their mother, Queen Victoria came to rely on the company of her youngest daughter, whom she called Baby for most of her childhood.
Beatrice, who was brought up to stay with her mother always, soon resigned herself to her fate.
Queen Victoria was set against her youngest daughter marrying and refused to discuss the possibility.
Beatrice fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg, the son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia von Hauke.
After a year of persuasion, Queen Victoria consented on condition that Beatrice and Henry make their home with her and that Beatrice continue her duties as the Queen's unofficial secretary.
Beatrice remained at her mother's side until Queen Victoria died on January 22, 1901. Beatrice devoted the next thirty years to editing Queen Victoria's journals as her designated literary executor.
She continued to make public appearances after her mother's death and died at the age of 87, outliving all her siblings and several of her children, nieces and nephews.
The Princess Louise was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and her husband, Albert, Prince Consort.
Louise's early life was spent moving among the various royal residences in the company of her family. When her father, the Prince Consort, died on December 14,1861, the court went into a period of intense mourning, to which Louise was unsympathetic.
Louise was an able sculptor and artist, and several of her sculptures remain today. She was also a supporter of the feminist movement, and corresponded with Josephine Butler and visited Elizabeth Garrett.
Despite opposition from members of the royal family, Louise fell in love with John, Marquess of Lorne, the heir to the Duke of Argyll, and Victoria consented to the marriage, which took place on March 21, 1871.
After the end of the First World War in 1918, at the age of 70, she began to retire from public life, undertaking few public duties outside of Kensington Palace.
She died at Kensington Palace on December 3, 1939 at the age of 91 years, 8 months and 15 days. Coincidentally, Princess Louise's younger brother Prince Arthur lived to be exactly the same age (to the day), making them the joint longest-lived of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's nine children.
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. He was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors.
During the long reign of his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded from political power and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite.
The Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including powered flight and the rise of socialism.
Edward fostered good relations between Great Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker."