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Transcript of Tri-lakes presentation
The Wings for Children Factory
The chemical soup of pulp mill pollutants entering the air, water, land, and us includes: Ammonia, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide, Chloroform, Dioxins and Furans, Hydrogen Chloride, Methanol, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, Phenols, Sulphur Oxides, Total Reduced Sulphur Compounds, Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Resin Acids, Alcohols, Terpenes, Acetaldehyde, Nitrates, Fungi (aspergillus fumigatus and a. versicolor), Bioaerosols (endotoxins), Benzene, Chlorinated Benzenes and Phenolics, Guaiacols, Other Volatile Organic Compounds, including Dichloroacetic Acid, Methyl Ester,2,5,- Dichlorothiophane, Styrene, Toluene and Xylenes
Video Illustrating Paper mill pollution
Waste from paper mills affects water quality by removing oxygen and adding harmful nutrients. The lowering of oxygen levels, or eutrophication, often causes algal blooms, such as the one being seen in the Tri-Lakes. Without oxygen, the fish and other aquatic organisms die, and the entire food chain is affected, including humans.
Although this factory doesn't pollute the lake, it has to use the lake's water to cool its machinery, which explains the increase in the temperature of the lake, especially in the water near this factory.
Half of all water pollution comes from nonpoint sources, which means that the point of pollution cannot be identified.
The Real Issue
Daphnia cannot survive heat above 68 degrees F,
whereas temperatures around the lake average roughly 72 degrees F. The Daphnia that are being eaten are the primary food source for young bass and perch. Fish stomachs may contain 95% Daphnia by volume.
Fishing is down 25% since last year
Perch are smaller and more reclusive
Less Daphnia and Gammarus in lake
Daphnia and Gammarus only found in certain areas of lake
Lake is greener than it used to be
And other stuff
When concentrations of nitrates and phosphates increase due to pollution, cyanobacteria and algae may have population explosions. The massive populations of these organisms give the water a pea-green color and produce a funny smell. As the populations increase, many of the algae and cyanobacteria out compete each other for space and die off. Oxygen-using decomposer bacteria then increase in numbers, which drops the oxygen levels in the lake. As a result, many fish die, which upsets the lake's balance.
Agricultural runoff leads to higher concentration levels of nitrogen in the water, which leads to algal blooms, abundances of cyanobacteria, and the depletion of oxygen in the body of water.
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Pollutants released by farm-runoff have been known to destroy fish's habitats, which may explain the perch congregating in secluded areas of the lake.
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
Table of Dissolved Oxygen and pH for Tri-Lakes,1992-2012 (in summation)
Food Web Information
If an organism takes in pollution or harmful chemicals, the pollutants not only affect them but also their offspring and organisms that feed on it, as the organisms living within an ecosystem are highly interdependent.
Because of this fact, once pollution gets into an ecosystem, it is very difficult to eliminate it from the ecosystem.
Affects reproduction, development, growth, and survival of organisms
Results when rain reacts with acidic molecules and particles in the air, emissions from industry, automobiles, etc.
Lowers pH and increases aluminum levels of lakes
May not kill fish, but leads to lower body weight and smaller size
Deposits nitrogen into lakes, rivers, etc.
Low availability of food for young bass and perch
Low availability of water with normal pH level and temperature
Low oxygen levels in water
Abundance of Algae
Not enough Daphnia and Gammarus
Smaller, discolored, and more reclusive perch
Lower pH level of water
Increased temperature of water
Presence of Wings for Children
Presence of Paper Mill
Possibly farm runoff
Impact on Habitat
Why were we hired by Chris Tackle?
To find out why the fishing is down 25% and why there are less bass in the lakes
To find a solution to the upset in the tri-lakes ecosystem
Inferences and Conclusions
The Main Cause
Other Supporting Causes
Thank you for your time and we hope you enjoyed our presentation!
Limnologist Tri-Lakes Packet
Ecologist Tri-Lakes Packet
Fishery Specialist Tri-Lakes Packet
Making Paper; As if the Earth Matters
Conservation Buffers to Reduce Pesticide Loss
Tri-Lakes Acid Precipitation Information
Tri-Lakes Energy in an Ecosystem Handout
Tri-Lakes Original Chris Tackle Letter
The Impact of Temperature Change on Daphnia Lab
Wings for Children has been in the Tri-Lakes area since 2010, and the ecological problem has only arisen during the last year or so
The Paper Mill has been around for years, long before the Wings for Children factory was built
The Temperature of the lakes went up (Wings for Children), causing Daphnia and Gammarus to die
The pH of the lakes decreased (Paper Mill) because of harmful chemicals that made the perch smaller and more reclusive
The Wings for Children Factory
Although the Paper Mill had been there for years, the problem only arose after the Wings for Children Factory was built on Lake Charmine.
Daphnia do not respond well to heat, and this temperature increase affected the entire ecosystem because of the decrease in Daphnia population.
The ecosystem here was fragile for years because of the Paper Mill, but the Wings for Children Factory was the final straw.
The Paper Mill releases harmful chemicals into the atmosphere and into the lakes, decreasing the pH of the water, poisoning the fish, and causing Acid Rain
Nonpoint pollution could also be a likely cause for some of the ecological changes in this area, as pesticides can travel easily throughout the world's many bodies of water
Agricultural runoff releases sediment, nutrients, pathogens, pesticides, metals, and salts into rivers and other bodies of water
Results from Experiment on the Effect of Temperature on Daphnia Behavior
Temperature (degrees C)
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Swimming around rapidly
Squirming around in the same place
Barely moving, just fluttering
Remove the Paper Mill and/or the Wings for Children Factory from the Tri-Lakes Area
Get the Paper Mill to use less toxic chemicals
Get the Wings for Children Factory to cool their machinery with other water
Introduce Daphnia back into lake, as they can reduce the amount of algae and cyanobacteria by half in a small amount of time
Plant Riparian forest buffers around the lakes
Constructed Wetlands should be made around the lakes
By Aaron Elmgren, Andy Kopplin, and Robert Audino