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Monarchs, Nobles & the Church

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Tim Endicott

on 6 April 2017

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Transcript of Monarchs, Nobles & the Church

Unit 8: HMA
Monarchs, Nobles & the Church
three major groups in power
Monarchs
Nobles
Church
(Kings & Queens)
(Lords, Counts, etc)
(Pope & Clergy)
Monarchs technically ruled everything
but relied on Nobles for military support
Church & Nobles actually had more power than Monarchs
had own courts, taxes, armies,
Monarchs tried to reclaim power
set up royal justice system
organized bureaucracy
developed taxes
built a standing army
strengthened ties with middle class
during the early Middle Ages
Angles
Saxons,
Vikings
invaded/settled in England
English ruler succeeded in keeping the kingdom united
HOWEVER:
1066
Anglo-Saxon King
EDWARD
dies w/o heir
council of nobles pick bro-in-law Harold to take over
Duke William of Normandy (Viking) claimed the throne
only solution - BATTLE
Duke William gathered an Army
won support of the Pope
sailed across the English Channel
attacked Harold at the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
William wins decisively
showcases the importance of a varied attack
infantry, archers & cavalry against just infantry
Harold would die during the battle
Christmas Day 1066, William crowned King of England
became known as "William the Conqueror"
over the next 300 years
the Anglo-Saxon & Norman French customs, language & traditions blended together
William commanded even more authority
granted fiefs but kept large amounts of land for himself
vassals swore allegiances to William (instead of feudal lords)
in 1086, he had a census completed - which created the
Domesday Book
listed every fief, castle, home etc. in England
created an efficient system of tax collecting
William's successors also created the royal
exchequer
(treasury)
collected taxes, fees, fines & dues
increased royal authority
1154
Henry II inherited the throne
revamped the system of royal justice
sent out traveling justices to enforce laws
created English
"common law"
legal system based on customs/court rulings
applied to all of England
took power from Feudal/Church courts
exchequer collected fines from royal justice
Henry II also created a jury system
determined if cases should be brought to trial
later a jury of 12 neighbors of the accused was created
Henry's extended power created disputes with the Church
he claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts
once a friend, Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) opposed the king's move
four knights murdered Becket in his cathedral in 1170
Henry claimed no involvement
in the end
Henry eased up and was less forceful with the Church
Becket was declared a saint/martyr
Full transcript