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Revolutionary War

by Arthur Nghiem, Anthony Hong, and Eric Feng

Arthur Nghiem

on 18 February 2015

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Transcript of Revolutionary War

The Revolutionary War
French and Indian War

End of Seven Years War
The French and Indian war ended. However, even after the colonists efforts to fighting the French, the Proclamation of 1763 restricted the colonists' expansion, issued by King George III. It was put in place due to the king not wanting the colonists to gain power in foreign lands. This was obviously opposed by the colonists, and due to common dispute, the colonies nationalized.
The French and Indian war was a war between the French and the Indians to earn and defend land. The French were attempting to protect and keep the Ohio River Valley for themselves. The French lost and colonists and the Indians won.

Acts and Taxes
The acts were the Sugar act, the Stamp act, Townsend act, and the Tea act.
The Intolerable Acts
The Intolerable Acts were the series of acts imposed on the colonists in 1774. The Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Quartering Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quebec Act. These acts are part of the reason why the Constitution was made.
The Declaration of Independence
After the Intolerable Acts, the colonists were, needless to say, furious. They wanted war, but they needed to declare a reason why. So in 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, explainin King George III's wrongs and preceding to declare war by "jumping of the train of abuses and usurpations". This was the official declaration of war on the British, and the other European countries, being at odds with Britain, acknowledged their independence. Whole text found here: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html
The Boston Port Act
The Boston Port Act closed the Boston port, an was triggered by the British wanting trade monopoly, and getting rid of the Boston Port would limit foreign trade,
and would not be argued
until the tea that was
raided was repaid.
Massachusetts Government Act
The Massachusetts Government Act banned all colonist town meetings, which was, again, to prevent the colonists from growing, and put Massachusetts on military rule.
The Battles of the Revolutionary War
The Administration of Justice Act
The first battles of the Revolutionary War were the Battles of Lexington and Concord. There were many battles that followed such as the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battle of Brooklyn, the Battle of Trenton, the Battle of Saratoga, and the Battle of Cow Pens. It is good to also know that the colonies army's were minutemen and militias. List of all military actions in the war: http://www.theamericanrevolution.org/battles.aspx
The Administration of Justice Act required all trials to be held in Britain, and this was especially humiliating due to the fact that the British Officers from the Boston Massacre got a "Not Guilty".
The Quebec Act
The Quebec Act gave special privileges to Quebec such as religious freedom and other rights. This was insulting to Colonists because the Colonists did not get these rights, and therefore intolerable.
The Quartering Act
The Quartering Act made the Colonists house soldiers whenever and wherever the soldiers wanted, which was opposed by the Colonists due to the expression that British soldiers would get free service, such as quartering and food, all without paying the owners of the residency, and adds the right for British army to assign houses without the Colonists' approval.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, and Cambridge. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies. Lexington featured the Shot Fired Around the World (The First Revolutionary war bullet) and Concord the failure of the British attempt to seize the weapons in Concord, made possible by Paul Revere's midnight ride. which was intercepted by American spies.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775 during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops to occupy. This was learned of by the colonists' intelligence spies, and resulted in a stealthy occupation of the Hills pre-battle. The British eventually took the hills, but at the cost of 1,000+ casualties, the greatest casualty count suffered by the British in any single encounter during the entire war. This battle made the Olive Branch Petition get sent to Parliament, but it was denied and made more laws get put in place.
The Battle of Long Island (Brooklyn)
The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was a major victory for the British and defeat for the Americans under General George Washington. It was the start of a successful British campaign that gave the British control of the strategically important city of New York. In the American Revolutionary War it was the first major battle to take place after the United States declared independence on July 4, 1776. In terms of soldiers, it was the largest battle of the entire conflict. It was also the first major battle occurring after the Declaration of Independence.
The Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired reenlistment. This battle was made possible by Thomas Paine convincing the patriot army, whose payments were in near worthless IOU's, that questioned your manhood if you backed away from fighting the British, and this gave the soldiers the courage to fight and cross the Delaware on Christmas Eve. It was preceded by a series of humiliating losses, and this battle essentially was the turning point of the war, as the colonists were extremely close to losing before the Battle of Trenton.
The Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence. Two battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, nine miles south of Saratoga, New York. The British had setup an army camp, but were ambushed with the colonists' guerilla tactics, so General John Burgoyne, without Parliament approval, decided to attempt escape to New York, but instead got surrounded and was forced to retreat the army.
The Battle of Cow Pens
The Battle of Cow pens (January 17, 1781) was a decisive victory by the Continental Army forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War over the British Army led by Coloniel Banastre Tarleton. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British. It took place in northwestern Cherokee County, South Carolina, north of the city of Cow pens. The British suffered a humiliating defeat, and is regarded as the last battle of the war, which secured America's freedom.
The Sugar Act
The Sugar Act, taxed all imported sweets, (tea, molasses,etc.) and was issued in 1764 to keep the colonists dependent on Britain for these foods. The colonists were irritated, but they relatively satisfied until...
The Stamp Act
Issued in 1765, gathering much more opposition then the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act required all legal documents (newspapers, books, marriage papers) be stamped, and that these stamps be taxed. This caused mob violence and paper boycotts, and was eventually repealed due to the Liberty Tree's "acts".
The Townsend Act
Issued in 1767, The Townsend Act taxes everyday goods, specifically paper, glass, lead, tea, and paint. This the colonists could not boycott these items, the colonists resorted to mob violence, however, this caused the Boston Massacre. They got they wanted, as all of these taxes got repealed, EXCEPT for tea.
The Tea Act
The Tea Act had essential monopolized tea, but it was good tea, for cheap. However, recalling the previous tea tax, and the fact that the British were monopolizing, the colonist got furious and "invited" everyone to the Boston Tea Party.
The Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre refers to the killing of five people, one a black, for insulting British officers, calling them "lobster backs". However, even if only five died, it was extremely important in patriot propaganda, portrayed as an organized shooting of colonists in the night. However, the truth was that the officers were being assaulted with sticks, rocks, and other things, and were therefore found "Not Guilty" on the count of manslaughter.
The Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was the organized destroying of British tea landing in the Boston Harbor, and none of the perpetrators were specifically found, as they were dressed as Native Americans.
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