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Theory of Evolution Timeline

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Ameen Khan

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Theory of Evolution Timeline

Aristotle believed that all living things could be arranged on a ladder of increasing complexity called the scala naturae. He believed that each form of life had a specific place on the ladder and each spot was taken. Aristotle
384-322 B.C. Species are permanent, perfect and don't evolve Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus
1707-1778 Linnaeus developed a binomial system of naming organisms according to genus and species. He started grouping species into a hierarchy of increasingly general categories such as genus, family, etc. Paleontology Georges Cuvier
1769-1832 He realized that fossils with similar characteristics were grouped together in a layer of the earth. He discovered that the deeper the layer of earth, the more different the fossils were from modern life. The boundary between each layer of rock was related to a catastrophe that occured at that time which destroyed the species living in that region. The region was then repopulated by immigrating species from other areas. Catastrophism Gradualism James Hutton
1795 He challenged Cuvier, saying that a single event couldn't have caused a change in the region. Instead the incidents are a gradual and slow change. For example, canyons are formed by rivers cutting through rock which can take many years. Uniformitarianism Charles Lyell
1830 Uniformitarianism came from gradualism. Lyell said that geological processes haven't changed throughout earth's history. For example, the rate of the forces that build or erode mountains are the same today as in the past. 2) Slow gradual processes over a long period of time can add up to big change 1) Earth must be older than 6000 years old, which was believed at that time by theologists. He published his theory of evolution which had two important points. Jean Baptiste Lamarck
1809 -parts of the body used to cope with environment become larger and stronger, while unused ones deteriorate Use and Disuse Changes that an organism acquires during its lifetime can be passed on to offspring. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Theory of Population Thomas Malthus
1798 He observed that plants and animals produce far more offsprings compared to the ones that actually survive. He said humans are capable of overproducing also if they are left unchecked. Malthus believed that unless family size was regulated, men would die of famine because of overpopulation. Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin
1844 All organisms are related through descent from some unknown ancestor that lived in the past. As descendants of that ancestral organism moved into various habitats, they adapted to their surrounding and specific ways of life. Descent with Modification The organisms that are able to survive the environment go on to live, while the ones incapable of living, die off and become extinct.


1)Natural Selection is based on reproductive success.

2) It occurs through interactions between environment and individual organisms in a population.

3) The result of natural selection is adaptation of the population of organisms to that specific environment. Natural Selection The Origin of Continents and Oceans Alfred Wegener
1915 Alfred first published this book in 1915. Wegener said that about 300 million years ago, the continents were part of one huge land mass called Pangea. Wegener was not the first to say this, but he had evidence to back this claim . Theory of Evolution Timeline
-Ameen Khan Ameen Khan Natural Theology William Paley
1802 Paley was popular for his book which stated that the nature of God could be understood by looking at His creations. He compared organisms to watches, saying that organisms are much more complex than watches. Just like watches are made by someone, animals are made by God. Classification John Ray
1682 Ray was a naturalist and belivied in natural theology. In his book Methodus Plantara Nova, he's the first to classify plants into monocots and dicots. This method produced more natural results and wasn't based on just one feature but instead on more similarities between species. Micrographia Robert Hooke
1665 Hooke made one of the best compound microscopes of his time. He observed organisms such as insects, sponges, and bird feathers. He discoverd plant cells by looking at the cell wall in cork tissue. NIcholas Steno
1666 At first Steno focused on the muscular system. He used geometry to show that when muscles contract, they change shape but not volume. later he found a resemblance between stony objects in rocks called "tongue stones" and shark teeth. He said that tongue stones were once shark teeth in the mouths of living sharks. These sharks were buried in mud or sand which later became dry land. Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519 He made observations on mountains and rivers, and he grasped the principle that rocks can be formed by deposition of sediments by water and can be eroded and carried to the sea, in a continuous grand cycle Georgius Agricola
(1494-1555) Agricola's observations were one of the first contributions to stratigraphic geology, and would become important in understanding the arrangement and origins of the rocks of the Earth. He wrote a book that gave descriptions of minerals, gemstones, gallstones, and fossils. This book classified the minerals by physical properties. Antony van Leeuwenhoek
(1632-1723) Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more. His research opened up an entire world of microscopic life. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(1707-1788) Buffon believed in organic change. He thought that the environment acted directly on organisms through what he called "organic particles". Buffon also published Les Epoques de la Nature in 1788 in which he suggested that the planet was much older than the 6,000 years old. Erasmus Darwin
1731-1802 He was one of the first to have a formal theory on evolution. He didn't come up with natural selection , but he discussed the concept that life evolved from a single common ancestor. William Smith (1769-1839) He observed that the layers of sedimentary rocks in any location contain fossils in a definite sequence. He said that this same sequence could be found in rocks in another place.This way strata could be correlated between locations. He was the first person to use fossils as a tool for mapping rocks by their stratigraphic order. Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1772-1844 Geoffroy spent time trying to decide when structures in two organisms were homologous. His criteria was that structures in different organisms were the same if their parts were connected to each other in the same pattern.
One of his theories was that the segmented external skeleton and jointed legs of insects were the same as the internal vertebrae and ribs of vertebrates which meant that insects live inside their own vertebrae and walk on their ribs. Adam Sedwick
1785-1873 Sedgwick believed in catastrophism just like Cuvier. He believed that these catastrophies destroyed much of Earth's life. He was opposed to Charles Lyell's idea of gradualism. However, Sedgwick believed there could be a possibility that at least some of the "catastrophic" changes implied by the rock record might be shown to be gradual. Patrick Matthew
(1790-1874) He developed a theory of natural selection about thirty years before Darwin's Origin of Species. In 1831, Matthew published On Naval Timber and Arboriculture, a book on raising trees of the best quality for the construction of Royal Navy ships. Matthew expressed his theory, based on his observations of how tree species might vary in form, and how artificial selection might improve cultivated trees. Mary Anning
(1799-1847) Mary Anning was credited with the first discovery of an ichthyosaur fossils. She helped to discover the first specimen of Ichthyosaurus to be known by the scientific community of London. More importantly, she discovered the first plesiosaur. Richard Owen
(1804-1892) Owen was a lecturer in comparative anatomy. In 1837, Owen gave his first series of Hunterian Lectures to the public. These popular lectures were attended by royalty and many important figures in England. Charles Darwin also attended these lectures. Louis Agassiz
(1807-1873) Agassiz worked with Cuvier and after Cuvier's death, Agassiz worked on many projects in paleontology, systematics, and glaciology. Agassiz studied glaciers in 1836 and, with help from others, examined the geological features of Switzerland. Agassiz noticed the marks that glaciers left on the Earth: great valleys; large glacial erratic boulders carried long distances; scratches and smoothing of rocks; mounds of debris called moraines pushed up by glacial advances. He realized that in many places these signs of glaciation could be seen where no glaciers existed. Agassiz became a powerful supporter of the theory that a great Ice Age had once hit the Earth, and published his ideas in Étude sur les glaciers in 1840. His book, Système glaciare (1847), presented more evidence for this theory. Agassiz later found even more evidence of glaciation in North America. Thomas Henry Huxley
(1825-1895) Thomas Henry Huxley was one of the first adherents to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, and did more than anyone else to advance its acceptance amongst everyone. Huxley was so passionate of Darwin's theory that he has been called "Darwin's Bulldog". But Huxley was not only the bulldog for Darwin's theory, but was a great biologist , who did original research in zoology and paleontology. Nor did he slavishly and uncritically swallow Darwin's theory; he criticized several aspects of it, pointing out a number of problems. Ernst Haeckel
(1834-1919) He created many words that are used today, such as phylum, phylogeny, and ecology.However, he also quoted things that the The Nazi party later used along with justifications for racism, nationalism and social darwinism. Haeckel worked on many "invertebrate" groups, including radiolarians, poriferans (sponges) and annelids (segmented worms). He named about 150 new species of radiolarians during a trip to the Mediterranean. Edward Drinker Cope
(1840-1897) Cope was an American paleontologist and evolutionist and was one of the founders of the Neo- Lamarckian school of evolutionary thought. He believed that changes in developmental (embryonic) timing, not natural selection, was the driving force of evolution. He also made important finds such as dinosaur discoveries in western North America. Cope also described many genera and species that are still used today. Henry Fairfield Osborn
1857-1935 He helped expand exhibits and research programs at the American Museum of Natural History. He led many fossil hunting expeditions in the American West and trained many of the vertebrate paleontologists in the early 20th century. WWI begins
July 28, 1914 Civil War starts
April 12, 1861 George Washington
1788 Washington elected as first US president Abraham Lincoln
April 15, 1865 Abraham Lincoln is assissnated. American Revolutionary War
September 3, 1783 Americans gain independence from Great Britain.
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