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Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
Transcript of Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
What are fallacies?
Fallacies are "tricks" used by the authors to persuade you to accept a conclusion
There are many fallacies and they can be organize in many different ways.
Some of them become so common they been given formal names
1.what are the issues and the conclusion?
2.what are the reasons?
3.what words or phrases are ambiguous ?
4.what are the value and descriptive assumptions?
Three common tricks
1. providing reasoning that requires erroneous or incorrect assumptions, thus making it irrelevant to the conclusion
2.disracting us by making information seem relevant to the conclusion when it is not
3.providing support for the conclusion that depends on the conclusion already being true
Ad Hominem- an attack, or an insult, on the person, rather than directly addressing the person's reasons.
Making the assumption that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable chain of undesirable events, when procedures exist to prevent such a chain of events
Searching for Perfect solution
Falsely assuming that because part of a problem remains after a solution is tried, the solution should not be adopted.
Other common fallacies
A key word or phrase is used with two or more meanings in an argument such that the argument fails to make sense once the shifts in meaning are recognized.
Appeal to Popularity
An attempt to justify a claim by appealing to sentiments that large groups of people have in common; falsely assumes that anything favored by a large group is desirable
Appeal to Questionable Authority
Supporting a conclusion by citing an authority who lacks special expertise on the issue at hand
Appeals to Emotions
The use of emotionally charged language to distract readers and listeners from relevant reasons and evidence. Common emotions appealed to are fear, hope, patriotism, pity and sympathy
Distorting our opponent's point of view so that it is easy to attack; thus we attack the point of view that does not truly exist
Assuming only two alternatives when there are more than two
Phrases that indicate the fallacies:
either / or
the only alternative is
the two choices are
because A has not worked, only B will
Explaining by naming
falsely assuming that because you have provided a name for some event or behavior, you have also adequately explained the event
Looking for diversion
preventing audience/reader from looking to closely at the relevant reasoning
The use of vague, emotionally appealing virtue words that dispose use to approve something without closely examining the reason
an irrelevant topics is presented to divert attention from the original issue and help to win an argument by shifting attention away from the argument and to another issue
Begging the question
an argument in which the conclusion is assumed in the reasoning