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The cell and its structures

Lesson on cellular structures
by

Mark Polko

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of The cell and its structures

The nucleus
The nucleolus
The nuclear membrane
Mitochondria
The cell is the organism’s basic unit of structure and function. For this reason, it is considered the smallest collection of matter that can live; the smallest form of life.
The cytoplasm is the cellular content excluding the nucleus. It is formed by an aqueous solution with organelles embedded in it.
The mitochondrion is an elongated-shaped organelle enclosed in an envelope of two membranes. It is the site for cellular respiration, the process by which the cell obtains energy (ATP).
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series of connected flattened sacs and membranous tubules. If the endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached, it is called rough ER, and if not, smooth ER. Its function is the production of several substances, such as lipids in the smooth ER and proteins in the rough ER.
Endoplasmic reticulum:
The cytoplasm
Ribosomes are tiny organelles found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are made of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins, and are the site for protein synthesis.
Ribosomes
It is a series of flattened stacks of membrane-bound sacs, surrounded by small vesicles. In these vesicles, substances built in the ER are chemically changed and prepared for secretion (export to the outside of the cell).
It is formed by a
phospholipid bilayer
that surrounds the cytoplasm. It functions as a
selective barrier
which separates the cell’s contents from its surroundings. It controls the exchange of materials such as nutrients and waste products between the two.

The plasma membrane is a
partially permeable membrane,
allowing some substances to cross freely, but not others. The molecules which can go through this membrane are of
small size
. Big molecules or ones with the incorrect electrical charge will not be allowed to pass through the membrane and when needed, they will cross the membrane by a especial transport system
The cell membrane or plasma membrane
The Golgi apparatus
Vacuoles
These are membranous vesicles which contain water with dissolved substances. In animal cells there are many of them of a small size. They can store reservoir substances or waste products
Cytoskeleton:
The cytoskeleton is a network of filaments that are located throughout the cytoplasm. It works as the ‘skeleton’ of the cell and it is involved in the movement of the cell.
Centrioles are small hollow cylinders made up of bundles of microtubules. They direct the movements of the cytoskeleton and are involved in cellular division (mitosis).
Centrioles
Full transcript