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The Body In Motion

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Glen Stephen

on 18 December 2014

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Transcript of The Body In Motion

The Body In Motion
The Skeletal System

What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system?

Do you know the two types of skeleton?

Which bones make up each skeleton?

What are the 4 types of bones? (examples?)


Discussion

SUPPORT
of the organs and tissues of the body. Otherwise it would collapse
PROTECTION
for internal organs
MOVEMENT
by allowing muscles to pull on attachment points
PRODUCTION
of red blood cells and
STORAGE
of minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Functions of the skeletal system

Label the long bone in your booklet by reading the paragraph provided.
Underneath, list each parts function.
Learning Task 3


Parts of a bone

For strong and healthy bones, nutrients such as calcium and phosphorous are important in the development of the bones. As we age our bones change drastically due to the different roles they play throughout our life and the demands placed on them. They increase in size and length by the “epiphyseal plates” at the ends of the long bones growing. These plates are naturally softer when we are young and during times of rapid growth.

Question: How does Age, Nutrition, Activity Levels and Injury all affect the health of our bones?

Notes

Use your netbook and knowledge to complete “Bones” worksheet. Learning Task 6
Factors affecting bone growth. Learning Task 7
Read ‘What is Female Triad” on page 50.
Extra: Complete a “Bone Health Profile” on yourself (or someone in your family). Page 49.

Learning Tasks

There are 206 bones in the human body

The skeletal System

Bones can be places into 2 groups.
The Axial Skeleton (green) or the Appendicular Skeleton (purple)
Label the bones on the Skeleton Diagram using your textbook, colour in the two types of skeleton. Learning Task 2
Complete table on Appendicular and Axial Skeletons. Learning Task 4


Types of skeleton

Long (longer than they are wide)
Short (equal length, width and height)

Flat (plates that provide protection)

Sesamoid (imbedded within a tendon)

Irregular (all others)

Types of Bones

Complete “Types of bones” Learning Task 8

Functions of the skeleton. Learning Task 9

Anatomical Terms and Planes. Learning Task 12.

Learning Tasks

There are 3 types of joints. What are they?
Hint: Think of what they can do or what they are made of.

What are the six types of synovial joint?

What sort of movements do they allow?

Discussion

Fibrous
: No movement, e.g. cranium

Cartilaginous
: Limited movement, e.g. Ribs and sternum

Synovial
: Freely movable, e.g. Knee, shoulder

Types of joints

Parts of a Synovial Joint

Hyaline (Articular) Cartilage:
covers the bones in the joint to form a smooth white shiny surface. Protects bone tissues and reduces friction.
Joint Capsule:
Strong, fibrous tissue surrounding the synovial joint. Reinforced by ligaments.
Synovial Membrane:
A fine lining of the inside of the capsule. Its role is to provide synovial fluid.
Synovial Fluid:
A yellowish fluid that lubricates articulating surfaces, forms a cushion between joint surfaces, provides nutrients for hyaline cartilage, and absorbs and removes debris produced by friction between joint surfaces.

Types of Synovial Joint

In your booklet, Colour in the 3 different planes of the body in 3 different colours and label them.

Body Planes

Joints and Page 11. Learning Task 10

Joint labelling and skeleton. Learning Task 11

Anatomical Terms and planes. Learning Task 12

Activities and Joint movements. Learning Task 13

Are you an undiscovered talent. Learning Task 5

Bones Crossword Learning Task 14

Build your own skeleton. Learning Task 16

Learning Tasks

The Muscular System

Name as many muscles in the body as we can? Point to where each one is?

How many muscles are there?

What do muscles do? How do they do it?

How many types of muscles are there?

What are the features of a muscle?

Complete colouring in activity. Learning Task 15

Discussion

Muscles

1).
Heat Generation
(regulating body temp)
2).
Stabilisation
of body positions (posture)
3).
Regulation
of essential body functions (digestion, beating of the heart, assist blood flow, go to toilet etc)
4). Production of
movement


Roles of Muscles

* Controlled by nerve stimuli
* Contracts (shortens) therefore becomes thicker
* Stretch with the application of force
* Can return to their original shape and size after being stretched or contracted
*Will waste away (atrophy) if insufficient blood supply
*Fed by capillaries that penetrate the fibres

Characteristics of all muscles

Discussion:

Sprinters- Hands Up!!

Long Distance runners?

Who is okay at both?

Is training the only reason we are good at events?

What else determines how fast we can move?

Muscle Fibres – Arrangements and Types

There are 3 types of fibres which all muscles are made from.
The combination of fibre types which determine what type of activity an athlete will be best suited for.

Muscle types

Muscle Action page 8 and 9. Learning Task 17

Circuit Activity. Learning Task 18 (prac)


Learning Tasks

Discussion:

How do we pick up a chicken nugget and eat it? (what do the muscles do?)

How do we squeeze hold of a tennis racquet?

How do people try to get their muscles to grow?

Types of contractions

Isotonic contraction
(same tone)

Where the muscle contracts and shortens while the opposing muscle (antagonist) lengthens.
Resistance doesn’t change.


Types of contraction

Isometric contraction
(same length)

Where the muscle contracts but does not shorten.

e.g. The plank
Hanging from a rope


Types

Complete: Classification of muscle and Skill Analysis. Learning Task 20
Type of Muscle work. Learning Task 21

Isokinetic Contraction
(same speed)

Where a machine controls the speed and range of movement.

Types

Copy out the seven steps of skeletal muscle contraction on page 63/64

The sliding filament theory

When we only need a small amount of power, only some of the motor units contract, When we need more power, more of the motor units contract.
Any motor unit that is stimulated must contract when the threshold is reached. A motor unit cannot contract any harder when more power is needed. It is already contracted.

The sliding filament theory

For a muscle contraction to occur, calcium is required as well as energy in the form of “Adenosine Triphosphate” (ATP).
An increase in the calcium levels in the sarcoplasm starts the sliding filament theory, while a decrease in calcium levels causes it to stop.

The sliding filament theory

Notice the variety of body movements within this circuit. This ensures a whole body workout!

Circuit Training

Complete Muscle Fibre arrangements. Learning Task 19

Fusiform

Unipennate

Bipennate

Multipennate



Muscle Fibres

All about muscles video questions. Learning Task 22
Muscles Crossword. Learning Task 23

Learning Tasks

Discussion
What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
What 2 systems make up the circulatory system?
What is blood made up of?
How much blood do we have?
What is the function of the Cardiovascular System?
What is your Pulse Rate?
Where can you measure your pulse?
How do you measure it?


The Cardiovascular System

The CV system has 5 important functions;

1)
Circulate
blood to all parts of the body
2)
Deliver
water, oxygen and nutrients to the cells
3)
Remove
wastes, including CO2 away from the cells
4) Help maintain correct body
temperature
5) Help
fight disease
through white blood cells and antibodies found in the blood


The Cardiovascular System

The CV system consists of blood, blood vessels ( arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins – in that order) and the heart.
There are 2 closed circuits;
Pulmonary Circulation (lungs)
Systemic Circulation (body)
Task: Describe what happens to the blood as it flows around each circuit. Then colour in the diagram in your booklet.

The Cardiovascular System

Label the diagram in your booklet

The Circulatory System

Answer in your workbook:

1) What is “Arteriovenous-oxygen difference (aVO2) ?

2) What does Heart Rate Represent?

3) What is “Stroke Volume”? (SV)

4) What is “Cardiac Output”? (CO)

Pericardium
Arteries vs Veins

Task: List all the differences between Arteries, Veins and Capillaries?

Capillaries

Males carry about 5-6 litres of blood, and females 4-5 litres

Blood consists of 45% solids (red cells, white cells and platelets. The other 55% is plasma

Blood is only about 7% of our body mass

During rest the heart pumps 5 litres of blood per minute (2500 litres per night)

Average heart size is a large fist
Average resting heart rate for an adult is 72bpm, but about 140bpm for a baby
Maximum HR = 220 minus age (only used as a guide)

Facts

Blood Cells

Complete: “Labelling, 2 circuits and Roles”. Learning Task 24
“Mindmap” Life as a red blood cell. Learning Task 25
Functions, roles and structure of blood vessels. Learning Task 26.


High blood pressure >(135/90) could be a result of: salt in the diet, obesity, stress or genetics. It is usually treated by a change in lifestyle and medication.
If not treated a person may have a stroke.
Low blood pressure <(90/60) can leave a person feeling tired, lethargic, light headed and may faint. LBP is not treatable, but not drastic if the person is aware of it.
Complete “Class Heart rate and Blood Pressure results” Learning Task: 27

Blood Pressure

Is a measure of how hard the heart needs to pump to push blood through the blood vessels, as well as how healthy these vessels are.
It is measured as


systolic pressure
(pressure of the arteries when heart contracts)

diastolic pressure
(pressure when heart is relaxed and fills up)


Blood Pressure

The role of the respiratory system:
1. to bring air from the atmosphere into the lungs
2. transfer oxygen into the blood
3. remove carbon dioxide from the blood
4. expels heat and water vapour in the air
5. Allows vocal cords to create speech as air is breathed out.


The Respiratory System

Parts of the Respiratory System

Complete Labelling and Roles. Learning Task 29

Respiratory System

Breathing

Capillaries are only one cell wide

Give out CO2
Absorb O2

Then we breathe it out

Gas exchange at the alveoli

Define:
VC

TV

RV

IRV

ERV

TLC

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Minute Volume of Respiration
(MVR) = the amount of air inspired and expired in 1 minute. (500ml x 12 breaths = 6000ml/min)
Maximum Oxygen Uptake
(max VO2) = maximum amount of oxygen taken in and used by the body in 1 minute.
Ventilation
(VE) = the transfer of air between the lungs and the atmosphere.
Anatomical dead space
= air breathed in which does not participate in gaseous exchange.
Pulmonary Respiration
= the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the alveoli and lung capillaries.
Tissue Respiration
= the exchange of CO2 and O2 at the cells in the body.

Other terms

Find your resting “Respiratory Rate”
What is the average for Males/Females?
What effects your Respiratory Rate?
How would asthma affect RR?
How would smoking affect RR?
What effect does exercise have on lung volumes and the respiratory system
a) when you first start exercising?
b) after exercising for a few weeks?

Discussion

Asthma

Activities:
Class Respiratory Rates. Learning Task 30
Mindmap. Learning Task 31
Crossword. Learning Task 32

Smoking

Bones
Muscles
Heart
Lungs
Unit 1 PE
Full transcript