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The Body In Motion
Transcript of The Body In Motion
The Skeletal System
What are the 4 functions of the skeletal system?
Do you know the two types of skeleton?
Which bones make up each skeleton?
What are the 4 types of bones? (examples?)
of the organs and tissues of the body. Otherwise it would collapse
for internal organs
by allowing muscles to pull on attachment points
of red blood cells and
of minerals such as calcium and potassium.
Functions of the skeletal system
Label the long bone in your booklet by reading the paragraph provided.
Underneath, list each parts function.
Learning Task 3
Parts of a bone
For strong and healthy bones, nutrients such as calcium and phosphorous are important in the development of the bones. As we age our bones change drastically due to the different roles they play throughout our life and the demands placed on them. They increase in size and length by the “epiphyseal plates” at the ends of the long bones growing. These plates are naturally softer when we are young and during times of rapid growth.
Question: How does Age, Nutrition, Activity Levels and Injury all affect the health of our bones?
Use your netbook and knowledge to complete “Bones” worksheet. Learning Task 6
Factors affecting bone growth. Learning Task 7
Read ‘What is Female Triad” on page 50.
Extra: Complete a “Bone Health Profile” on yourself (or someone in your family). Page 49.
There are 206 bones in the human body
The skeletal System
Bones can be places into 2 groups.
The Axial Skeleton (green) or the Appendicular Skeleton (purple)
Label the bones on the Skeleton Diagram using your textbook, colour in the two types of skeleton. Learning Task 2
Complete table on Appendicular and Axial Skeletons. Learning Task 4
Types of skeleton
Long (longer than they are wide)
Short (equal length, width and height)
Flat (plates that provide protection)
Sesamoid (imbedded within a tendon)
Irregular (all others)
Types of Bones
Complete “Types of bones” Learning Task 8
Functions of the skeleton. Learning Task 9
Anatomical Terms and Planes. Learning Task 12.
There are 3 types of joints. What are they?
Hint: Think of what they can do or what they are made of.
What are the six types of synovial joint?
What sort of movements do they allow?
: No movement, e.g. cranium
: Limited movement, e.g. Ribs and sternum
: Freely movable, e.g. Knee, shoulder
Types of joints
Parts of a Synovial Joint
Hyaline (Articular) Cartilage:
covers the bones in the joint to form a smooth white shiny surface. Protects bone tissues and reduces friction.
Strong, fibrous tissue surrounding the synovial joint. Reinforced by ligaments.
A fine lining of the inside of the capsule. Its role is to provide synovial fluid.
A yellowish fluid that lubricates articulating surfaces, forms a cushion between joint surfaces, provides nutrients for hyaline cartilage, and absorbs and removes debris produced by friction between joint surfaces.
Types of Synovial Joint
In your booklet, Colour in the 3 different planes of the body in 3 different colours and label them.
Joints and Page 11. Learning Task 10
Joint labelling and skeleton. Learning Task 11
Anatomical Terms and planes. Learning Task 12
Activities and Joint movements. Learning Task 13
Are you an undiscovered talent. Learning Task 5
Bones Crossword Learning Task 14
Build your own skeleton. Learning Task 16
The Muscular System
Name as many muscles in the body as we can? Point to where each one is?
How many muscles are there?
What do muscles do? How do they do it?
How many types of muscles are there?
What are the features of a muscle?
Complete colouring in activity. Learning Task 15
(regulating body temp)
of body positions (posture)
of essential body functions (digestion, beating of the heart, assist blood flow, go to toilet etc)
4). Production of
Roles of Muscles
* Controlled by nerve stimuli
* Contracts (shortens) therefore becomes thicker
* Stretch with the application of force
* Can return to their original shape and size after being stretched or contracted
*Will waste away (atrophy) if insufficient blood supply
*Fed by capillaries that penetrate the fibres
Characteristics of all muscles
Sprinters- Hands Up!!
Long Distance runners?
Who is okay at both?
Is training the only reason we are good at events?
What else determines how fast we can move?
Muscle Fibres – Arrangements and Types
There are 3 types of fibres which all muscles are made from.
The combination of fibre types which determine what type of activity an athlete will be best suited for.
Muscle Action page 8 and 9. Learning Task 17
Circuit Activity. Learning Task 18 (prac)
How do we pick up a chicken nugget and eat it? (what do the muscles do?)
How do we squeeze hold of a tennis racquet?
How do people try to get their muscles to grow?
Types of contractions
Where the muscle contracts and shortens while the opposing muscle (antagonist) lengthens.
Resistance doesn’t change.
Types of contraction
Where the muscle contracts but does not shorten.
e.g. The plank
Hanging from a rope
Complete: Classification of muscle and Skill Analysis. Learning Task 20
Type of Muscle work. Learning Task 21
Where a machine controls the speed and range of movement.
Copy out the seven steps of skeletal muscle contraction on page 63/64
The sliding filament theory
When we only need a small amount of power, only some of the motor units contract, When we need more power, more of the motor units contract.
Any motor unit that is stimulated must contract when the threshold is reached. A motor unit cannot contract any harder when more power is needed. It is already contracted.
The sliding filament theory
For a muscle contraction to occur, calcium is required as well as energy in the form of “Adenosine Triphosphate” (ATP).
An increase in the calcium levels in the sarcoplasm starts the sliding filament theory, while a decrease in calcium levels causes it to stop.
The sliding filament theory
Notice the variety of body movements within this circuit. This ensures a whole body workout!
Complete Muscle Fibre arrangements. Learning Task 19
All about muscles video questions. Learning Task 22
Muscles Crossword. Learning Task 23
What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
What 2 systems make up the circulatory system?
What is blood made up of?
How much blood do we have?
What is the function of the Cardiovascular System?
What is your Pulse Rate?
Where can you measure your pulse?
How do you measure it?
The Cardiovascular System
The CV system has 5 important functions;
blood to all parts of the body
water, oxygen and nutrients to the cells
wastes, including CO2 away from the cells
4) Help maintain correct body
through white blood cells and antibodies found in the blood
The Cardiovascular System
The CV system consists of blood, blood vessels ( arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins – in that order) and the heart.
There are 2 closed circuits;
Pulmonary Circulation (lungs)
Systemic Circulation (body)
Task: Describe what happens to the blood as it flows around each circuit. Then colour in the diagram in your booklet.
The Cardiovascular System
Label the diagram in your booklet
The Circulatory System
Answer in your workbook:
1) What is “Arteriovenous-oxygen difference (aVO2) ?
2) What does Heart Rate Represent?
3) What is “Stroke Volume”? (SV)
4) What is “Cardiac Output”? (CO)
Arteries vs Veins
Task: List all the differences between Arteries, Veins and Capillaries?
Males carry about 5-6 litres of blood, and females 4-5 litres
Blood consists of 45% solids (red cells, white cells and platelets. The other 55% is plasma
Blood is only about 7% of our body mass
During rest the heart pumps 5 litres of blood per minute (2500 litres per night)
Average heart size is a large fist
Average resting heart rate for an adult is 72bpm, but about 140bpm for a baby
Maximum HR = 220 minus age (only used as a guide)
Complete: “Labelling, 2 circuits and Roles”. Learning Task 24
“Mindmap” Life as a red blood cell. Learning Task 25
Functions, roles and structure of blood vessels. Learning Task 26.
High blood pressure >(135/90) could be a result of: salt in the diet, obesity, stress or genetics. It is usually treated by a change in lifestyle and medication.
If not treated a person may have a stroke.
Low blood pressure <(90/60) can leave a person feeling tired, lethargic, light headed and may faint. LBP is not treatable, but not drastic if the person is aware of it.
Complete “Class Heart rate and Blood Pressure results” Learning Task: 27
Is a measure of how hard the heart needs to pump to push blood through the blood vessels, as well as how healthy these vessels are.
It is measured as
(pressure of the arteries when heart contracts)
(pressure when heart is relaxed and fills up)
The role of the respiratory system:
1. to bring air from the atmosphere into the lungs
2. transfer oxygen into the blood
3. remove carbon dioxide from the blood
4. expels heat and water vapour in the air
5. Allows vocal cords to create speech as air is breathed out.
The Respiratory System
Parts of the Respiratory System
Complete Labelling and Roles. Learning Task 29
Capillaries are only one cell wide
Give out CO2
Then we breathe it out
Gas exchange at the alveoli
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Minute Volume of Respiration
(MVR) = the amount of air inspired and expired in 1 minute. (500ml x 12 breaths = 6000ml/min)
Maximum Oxygen Uptake
(max VO2) = maximum amount of oxygen taken in and used by the body in 1 minute.
(VE) = the transfer of air between the lungs and the atmosphere.
Anatomical dead space
= air breathed in which does not participate in gaseous exchange.
= the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the alveoli and lung capillaries.
= the exchange of CO2 and O2 at the cells in the body.
Find your resting “Respiratory Rate”
What is the average for Males/Females?
What effects your Respiratory Rate?
How would asthma affect RR?
How would smoking affect RR?
What effect does exercise have on lung volumes and the respiratory system
a) when you first start exercising?
b) after exercising for a few weeks?
Class Respiratory Rates. Learning Task 30
Mindmap. Learning Task 31
Crossword. Learning Task 32
Unit 1 PE