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Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE)

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by

Shae Jones

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE)

TEREPHTHALATE
POLYETHYLENE
By Shae Jones
Terephthalic Acid
OH
C
O
C
OH
O
Ethylene Glycol
OH
OH
CH2
CH2
Ethylene Glycol + Terephthalic Acid
Polyethylene Terephthalate + Water
OH
OH
OH
OH
C
C
O
O
CH2
CH2
Catalyst
C
O
O
O
CH2
CH2
O
C
2H2O
+
+
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)
A man-made polymer used in the production of synthetic fibres and resins.
A member of the polyester family of polymers
The most widely produced synthetic fibre in the world, and one of the most produced resins.
Discovery of PET
PET was discovered and patented by J. Rex Whinfield and James T. Dickson in England, 1941.
Improved stretch-molding procedures, devised in the 1970s, allowed PET resin to be made into food containers and bottles.
By 1953 production of synthetic textile fibre had begun.
Synthesis of PET
Two monomers, Ethylene Glycol and Terephthalic Acid, are polymerised under the influence of heat and a catalyst, either antimony trioxide, antimony triacetate or germanium dioxide, to produce PET.
Ethylene glycol is a diol, an alcohol with a molecular structure that contains two hydroxyl (OH) groups.
Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene glycol is a colourless liquid obtained from the alkene, ethylene.
Terephthalic acid is a dicarboxylic aromatic acid,
an acid with a molecular structure that contains two carboxylic acid groups (CO2H) and a benzene (or aromatic) ring.
Ethylene is found in petroleum, natural gas, and is a naturally occuring plant hormone.
CH2
CH2
Terephthalic Acid
Terephthalic acid is obtained from para-xylene.
CH3
CH3
Para-xylene is found in coal-tar distillate
PET polymer chain
C
O
O
O
CH2
CH2
O
C
C
O
O
O
CH2
CH2
O
C
Uses of PET
PET is used in a variety of different applications, these include: synthetic fibres, rigid plastics and films, along with cosmetics.
PET is used in cosmetics for its viscosity, resistance to moisture and its rigidity.
PET in Cosmetics
Used in products such as hairspray, nail polish and make-up products
PET Bottles and Containers
Recyclable
Lightweight
Strength and transparency
Shatter resistant
Resistant to outside gases and liquids
The rigidity of PET fibres makes fabrics wrinkle resistant, and carpets durable.
Importance of PET in Today's Society
The importance of PET is in its environmental impacts and the easy measures which can be taken to reduce them.
The carboxylic acids and alcohol groups react to form ester groups (CO2) and water.
OH
OH
C
H20
O
O
O
C
+
+
PET fibre
PET film
PET bottles
Bottles and Containers
Bottles and containers are blow-moulded into shape, whilst fruit tubs can be thermo formed.
PET Film
PET is heated and extruded to form PET film.
PET Films
PET's high melting point makes it ideal for oven bags. Its resistance to outside liquids and gases, as well as its durability, make it ideal for packaging.
PET Fibres
PET Fibres
Molten PET is squeezed through small holes to create a fine filament. This filament is then extruded and spun into fibres.
PET is used for water bottles, carbonated drink bottles, cleaning product containers and jars for processed foods. Carries the #1 recycling code.
PET Bottles and Containers
Used in food packages, oven bags, and in 'foil' package blends.
PET Film
Used in polyester clothing, durable press blends, carpets, insulation, automobile parts and hose reinforcement.
PET Fibres
Recycling PET
Recycling PET plastics will have a drastic improvement on wastage and CO2 emissions.
PET takes up to 100 years to degrade.
Facts on PET
• 3 fl oz of crude oil makes one plastic water bottle.

• It takes around 3.4 mega joules of energy to make a typical one-liter plastic bottle, cap, and packaging.

• The manufacture of every ton of PET produces around 3 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Bottling water thus created more than 2.5 million tons of CO2 in 2006.

• In addition to the water sold in plastic bottles, it is estimated that twice as much water is used in the production process. Thus, every litre sold represents three litres of water.

Alternative to PET
Reducing the consumption of PET, as well as increasing the recycling rate will create a much more environmentally plastic.
Green polyethylene could be used to lower the demand on PET plastic resins. Green polyethylene is made from sugarcane ethanol and has all the performance characteristics of a traditional PE, and is 100% recyclable. Traditional polyethylene is used in milk bottles and plastic bags.
Images sourced from CIEC Promoting Science at the University of York 2013, http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/polymers/polyesters.html
Image sourced from CRI 2013, http://www.container-recycling.org/index.php/plastic-data
Thank you for listening and Recycle!
Full transcript