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Geography

Revision for Geography CT2 on Water Supply
by

Gladys Ng

on 10 May 2010

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Transcript of Geography

Geography CT2 Understanding the water supply. Responses to the rising demand of water Others Water Supply in Singapore Water Constraints 70% of Earth's Surface= Water,
but only 0.1% can be consumed/
used. Why? Rising Demand
- Increase in Population
- Increase in Industries
- Increase in Agriculture
- Recreation Uneven Distribution Of Rainfall
- Fresh water in Canada = 20%
- Fresh water in India = 10% Deforestation
- Creates surface runoff,
enables soil erosion.
- Pollutes water source to
make it not consumable. Mekong River Flows from:
Tibetan Plateau - China's Yunan Province - Burma(Myanmar)
- Laos - Cambodia - Vietnam Prolonged droughts have caused river level to be at all time low. Some say China is at fault, because they have built three dams (1st called ManWan), and are currently building twelve more. Countries like Vietnam completely depend on river for food and economy. What is the issue? If China continues to build dams, all the countries downstream and the environment will suffer from added pollution. Poison the food supply by pesticide runoff and heavy industry.
Promote water hyacinth infestation.
River blockage problems.
Fishes can no longer swim upstream to spawn.
Create very low water flow. Climate Change
-El Nino and Global Warming Increasing the price of water Increasing water catchment Water Conservation Desalination Importing Water Water Reclaimation Singapore has two water contracts with Malaysia.
Singapore buys water at 20cents/gallon and treats it, selling it back at $1.20/gallon. A few years ago, Malaysia started complaining about the high cost of water which Singapore sells treated water. They wanted to charge Singapore at a higher price, and Singapore agreed but only if they sold their treated water at an even higher price. It was because of this that Malaysia considered not renewing the 2011 water contract when it ended. This shows that Singapore's government was right in stating that a country dependent on such an important and neccessary thing, like water, puts our country in vulnerability. The new water catchment in Singapore is the Marina Barrage, which is also the 15th reservoir in Singapore. In addition to that, two more reservoirs are also about to be constructed. Singapore hopes to bring the water catchment area to about 2/3 of Singapore. Only countries with high technology. 4 National Taps Water from Local Catchment Desalinated Water Imported water from Johor NEWater 15 Reservoirs in Singapore, including Marina Barrage.
2 more under construction.
Singapore plans to have 2/3 of the island be water catchment. NEWater will soon be able to provide 30% of the demand of water in Sinagpore. Singapore has 2 contracts with Johor, one of which is ending next year, while the other is ending in 2061. Singapore will not be renewing the 2011 contract with Malaysia as it has sufficient water supply from the 3 other national taps. Desalinated water meets 10% of our water demand. The desalination plant is located in Tuas(reclaimed land). We have an annual rainfall of 2000mm but not all of it can be collected for usage.
Half of the water we use is consumed at home.
When population increases, so does demand for water. The Demand For Water Per capita domestic consumption of water was 160 litres in 2005, Singapore aims to cut it down to 155 litres by 2012. Increasing the price of water will help to control the amount of water a citizen uses.
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