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Unit 1, Quarter 1 The GEOSPHERE

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April Anderson

on 17 April 2018

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Transcript of Unit 1, Quarter 1 The GEOSPHERE

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli

Explain how Earth’s systems are dynamic and continually react to natural and human-caused changes.

Illustrate how energy flowing and matter cycling within Earth’s biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere give rise to processes that shape Earth.

Research and report on how scientists study feedback loops to inform the public about Earth’s interacting systems.

Unit 1, Quarter 1 The GEOSPHERE

Objective 1: Evaluate the source of Earth’s internal heat and the evidence of Earth’s internal structure.
a. Identify that radioactive decay and heat of formation are the sources of Earth’s internal heat.

b. Trace the lines of scientific evidence (e.g. seismic studies, composition of meteorites, and samples of the crust and mantle) that led to the inference that Earth’s core, mantle, and crust are separated based on composition.

c. Trace the lines of scientific evidence that led to the inference that Earth’s lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core are separated based on physical properties.

d. Model how convection currents help distribute heat within the mantle.
Objective 2: Describe the development of the current theory of plate tectonics and the evidence that supports this theory.
Distribution of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
During the 1950s and 1960s scientists set up seismographs to see if enemy nations were testing atomic bombs. These seismographs also recorded all of the earthquakes around the planet. The data could be used to find the earthquakes epicenter.

Objective 3: Demonstrate how the motion of tectonic plates affects Earth and the living things.
Name the MAJOR tectonic plates:
Two questions ...

What geologic activities happen at plate boundaries?

What are the possible ways two plates can move in relation to each other?
Objective 1: Evaluate the source of Earth’s internal heat and the evidence of Earth’s internal structure.
Before we talk about some of the Earth Systems,
lets talk about the meaning of some Root Words
How is the Earth a System?
How is this bike a system?
What individual parts have to work together for a rollercoaster?
SYSTEM - individual parts that
are interconnected and work together
to form a whole.
Can you think of any examples of working systems?
Can you name what systems make up the Earth as a whole? Let's look at the back of page 4.
The Spheres of Our Earth
Geosphere Hydrosphere Biosphere Atmosphere
Now can you think of any other examples of systems?
(class discussion)
Bike Questions on Page 4
Do you think these Earth Systems are continually changing? What would make or cause changes in these Earth Systems?
Feedback Loops
A positive feedback loop is like a vicious cycle.
A negative feedback loop allows for a return to normal or a return to equilibrium. It is self correcting.
For example:
What type of feedback loop is this?
Can you think of a negative feedback loop? Answer questions 1-4 on Page 3.
The layered structure of the Earth resulted because accumulated heat cause the early planetary body to become completely molten,or liquid. Only then could gravitational differentiation of the mixture of materials cause them to separate into layers.. solids cant do this. Only later did most of the layers of the planet cool and solidify.
When Earth first formed it was very hot. Much of the energy was produced when the cosmic rocks, that formed the planet, collided with each other causing friction. This is called

Radioactive materials (that emit high-energy subatomic particles) were very abundant when Earth formed. When these subatomic particles hit surrounding matter, the energy from friction leads to high temperatures. This is called
Alien Deep Interactive link :::

The inner core is about the size of our moon, but density is that of steel. Th'e liquid outer core is liquid metal. The Earth's rotation makes this flow and swirl and the moving metal generates the planet's magnetic field.


What is it like at the center of the Earth?
As you travel down to the center of the Earth, do you believe it gets colder or hotter?
Answer Question 1 on Page 8.

Be prepared to justify you answer.
By looking at the following pictures,
Identify whether the
coming from
the Earth
or from
the Earth (the sun).
Let's look at ....
Composition vs. Physical Properties
Seismic Studies
Samples of the
crust and mantle
Composition of meteorites
By studying seismic waves, scientists can discover the physical properties of Earth's interior.

The SPEED and DIRECTION of seismic waves change depending on the different physical properties they encounter within the Earth.

6 min

Convection in the Mantle
Visual of Mantle Convection
Tectonic plates are made up of BOTH the
the CRUST and the upper part of the MANTLE
What is this?
Does this name share the same root?
This is a food deHYDRator.
Write the root word on back of
page 4. What is the meaning of
this root?
What is the root word for Biology?
Write the root word on back of page 4.

What is the meaning of this root word?
What is the root word of Geographic?
Do you know what these rocks are called?
Write the root word on back of page 4 and complete the bottom left.
What is this a photo of?
On the back of page 4 you should have 4 root words, examples of words with similar roots, the meaning of the root, and also the name of the Earth System with the root.
Use the following 10 photos to answer questions 1-10 under question 2 on page 8.
Inside or outside?
Before watching this video. Read about seismic waves in the online text book starting on page 69.
The earth is STILL cooling down.
Just like a hot pocket the crust has cooled off first.
7th grade vocab

9th grade vocab


Use this photo to label and color the drawing on your paper.
Know the two types of crust. Know the lithosphere sits on top of the more dense asthenosphere. Heat is transferred by CONVECTION in the mantle layer known as the asthenosphere.
(soft play-doh layer)
Here's another way of looking at it...
Notice the new
vocabulary words
in this diagram...

These words
on this side

Who was Alfred Wegener?
The Theory of Continental Drift REVISITED!
The following video will help provide answers to the questions on
Page 3
of your Notebook.
Can you name the FOUR pieces of evidence Wegener used to support his theory of CONTINENTAL DRIFT?
(add at least three to the bottom of page 1)

Why was his theory not accepted?
What was he unable to explain that made people doubt his theory?
Plant Fossil: Glossopteris
Seeds were too heavy to be carried so far by the wind across the ocean.
Animal Fossil: Mesosaurus
Could only swim in fresh water
Similar landforms and matching mountain ranges (same age and type of rock) were found on different continents across the atlantic.
How sound waves are used to create
pictures of the sea floor.

Harry Hess
He was a Geology professor and naval officer during WWII
Used echo sounders or SONAR
to map the Ocean Floor
The Earth's CRUST is mostly made of SILICATES
The less dense CONTINENTAL crust
is made mostly of granite
The more dense OCEANIC crust
is mostly made of basalt
Add these descriptions of the CRUST
to your notebook pages!
Basalt is an iron rich, volcanic rock
that makes up the oceanic crust. It
contains a magnetic mineral called
magnetite that can be recognized by
compasses and magnetometers.
For unknown reasons the Earth's magnetic field reverses.
When new basalt from the mid ocean ridge forms, the grains of magnetite in the basalt oceanic crust behave like little magnets and align themselves with Earth's magnetic field. When the magma cools to form solid rock, the alignment of the magnetite grains are locked in.
Magnetic Striping led to more questions...

If the sea floor is spreading, why doesn't the
crust continue to get bigger and bigger?
Magnetic Striping Paper Model, Page 10

What two things are symmetrical on both sides of
the Mid Ocean Ridge?
___________________ and ________________________

The pattern found in the Oceanic Crust on both
sides of the Mid Ocean Ridge is EVIDENCE of
what theory proposed by Hess?
magnetic striping
seafloor spreading
Answer questions about the movie on Page 11
Partner pair with samples
see Timeline
See classroom sonar technology poster and
interactive on my website
In what direction do they move and how fast/slow?.
By connecting the dots of the earthquake epicenters and knowing where volcanoes are located, scientist have determine where tectonic plates boundaries are.

The distribution of Volcanoes around the globe.
Listen for...
3 types of plate boundaries and
3 types of disasters
caused by tectonic plate movement

subduction animation
Oceanic Trench - Sonar video

Mariana's Trench
Earth's Interior, Plate tectonics, and
The Himalayas
The Nazca is converging and subducting creating
volcanic arcs on the continental crust.
Convergent boundaries are made of subduction zones where volcanonic arcs are created.
Mount St. Helen's
When two plate boundaries move past each other in opposite directions.
California's San Andreas Fault
Transform boundary faults are very
earthquake active.
Divergent Boundary

Plates move apart at mid ocean ridges where sea-floor spreading occurs. Lava flows at the surface, cools rapidly to become basalt.

What do you think the
would be?
Watch the video and discuss the question "Why study Earth Science?"
Look at the world map below and make some observations. Look for patterns.
Glossopteris seeds were found in South America and in Africa.
What can you conclude from the
evidence found in Earth's Geologic Record?
When your things are cleaned up
and put away... we can watch this.
This map shows current climate patterns.
Glacial Striations found in
warm climate regions.
August 25,2014
Is the GEOSPHERE dynamic?
1. Read through the fossil evidence
page on your table.
2. Color the fossil sections to match the laminated page.
3. Using the shape of the continents and the fossil record, go back in time and see if you can fit the pieces together.
4. Glue them behind your Page 1.

Let's look at Earth's
Coal has been found
in Antarctica. Look at
how coal is formed.
This is a mid-ocean ridge with a rift valley at the center.
Interacting spheres that form a system.
Class discussion
Watch the video on Systems...
What is this?
Complete the top left square on the back of page 4.
Complete the top right square
Answer the questions on the back of page 5. Use this photo for the last question.
Can you think of
any other words with the
root, "ATMOS"?
me neither
Take a moment to
Read the front side of Page 5
approx 6 min.
More technology
increases our scientific
On page 6 color the earthquakes
green (dots)
and the volcanoes
red (triangles)
Here's another food analogy...
How can we know of the composition of the crust?
granite (continental)
basalt (oceanic)
granite samples from continental drilling
basalt samples from oceanic drilling
How can we know about the
composition of our mantle?
How can we know about
the composition of our core?
Taken at Meteor Crater, AZ
My son
His friend
Huge Crater
from a huge meteorite
For Earth to have a magnetic field,
what would have to be in the center of it?
Physical Properties
TECTONIC plates are LITHOSPHERIC plates.
Primary Wave (P-wave) shadow zones
Primary and Secondary (P and S-wave) shadow zones
Tonga Trench
26 min review video
Haiti in Caribbean Sea
A review - 12 min.
2 min video
Let's zoom in and look at a few
examples of what happens at
East African Rift Valley
Arabian Plate
3 min
Convergent Boundary
Nazca Plate
South American
Convergent Boundaries
(Oceanic to Oceanic)
Volcanic Islands
Convergent (continental to continental
What is the energy source
and in what ways is
transferred by a volcano?
1. heat energy
from core
2. heat transfers from core to mantle by convection

3. convection moves plates
causing volcanoes
What is the energy source and how is ENERGY transferred by EARTHQUAKE?
1. Heat energy from core
Earthquakes in Utah
Example of Feedback loop
Puzzle pieces should look like this for the back of Page 1.
For Page 3
With sonar they discovered this underwater
Mountain Chain called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Through what island nation, does the Mid-Atlantic Ridge pass?
Back of Page 3. What does the key tell you about Iceland?
The mid-atlantic is not the only one.
There are many mid-ocean ridges.
This video shows what happens inside rifts of mid-ocean ridges.
Pictures of rift valleys in Iceland
Could the distance of this rift valley be measured each year?
What does this map tell us about the age
of the sea floor in relation to ridges?
Do you see the pattern? What is happening along mid-ocean ridges?
Sea floor rock has magnetic properties.
A magnetometer is used to detect metal under the ocean.
A magnetic striping pattern was found which provides more evidence for sea-floor spreading.
Create a paper model for page 5. Include age of sea-floor, magnetic striping pattern, and label the trenches. Be sure pattern is symmetrical. Answer the questions on Page 5.
What happens along trenches?
Seismographs measure earthquakes...
Scientists study mantle plumes to
determine tectonic plate movement.
In the Pacific, under the big island,
there is a MANTLE PLUME.
Mantle plumes can also exist under
continental crust.
Answer questions on the
backside of Page 6 after
watching the videos.
A soon to be divergent boundary.
4. when volcanoes erupt, they transfer heat and mechanical energy by explosive rocks and moving lava
2. Heat energy is transferred to plates by convection in the mantle
3. Convection in the mantle causes tectonic plates to move which causes earthquakes (mechanical energy).
4. Earthquakes transfer mechanical energy by seismic waves and tsunamis.
Are there patterns in Earth's geologic records?
This is an example of landform evidence
for Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
Coal found here
Glacial striations found here
This is an example of ancient CLIMATE evidence.
The Distribution of Earthquakes around the globe.
Mantle Plumes
Areas of hot magma
that are super heated
and rise to the crust
of the earth.
Page 9
(hard play-do layer)
upper mantle
(tectonic plates)
Tectonic plates move on a convecting mantle, the part of the mantle that convects is most likely the
asthenosphere because of its PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

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