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Transcript of World
1. The Battle of Verdun (1916)- A major military engagement of World War I, the Battle of Verdun was a ten month long ordeal between the French and German armies. The battle was part of an unsuccessful German campaign to take the offensive on the western front.
4. The Battle of the Somme (1916)-At 0730 hours on the 1st July, 1916, after a week long artillery bombardment launched the now infamous "Big Push" attack across the river Somme. With the French Army being hard-pressed to the south at Verdun the British intended to breakthrough the German defenses in a matter of hours.
Theatres of War
1. Western Front- Fought in trenches & fought between Germany vs. France, Britain, & the U.S.A.
2.Eastern Front- Fought between Russia & Austria-Hungary
3.Italian Front- Fought between Austria-Hungary & Italy
4. Gallipoli Front- Fought between Britain & France & division of Austria.
Three major turning points of World War 1 were:
failure of the British campaign at Gallipoli (1915); Because of the failure, the Allies suffered a loss and were forced to retreat.
Battle of Verdun (1916); Germany hoped to change the course of the war by attacking the French. It took a huge toll on both German and French armies.
when the United States entered the war (1917).
the U.S. joined the war after Germany sunk a British ship with Americans on it and when Britain intercepted the Zimmerman note which Germany sent to Mexico, the U.S. joined the war. This was a turning point because it provided a boost for the Allied powers.
2. The Battles of the Marne (1912,1918)- On September 4, 1914, the rapid advances of the German army through Belgium and northern France caused panic in the French army and troops were rushed from Paris in taxis to halt the advance. Combined with the BEF (British Expeditionary Force) the Germans were eventually halted and the War settled into the familiar defensive series of entrenchment's.
3. The Battles Ypres (1914, 1915,1917)-There were in fact three battles fought around the Ypres salient during the War. The first, in 1914 was an attempt by the BEF to halt the rapid advances made by the Germans. The second, in 1915, was notable for the first use of poison gas by the Germans. However, it is the long-planned offensive of July 31, 1917, that holds the most significance. Here, a combination of over-ambitious aims, appalling weather conditions, and misguided persistence by Haig led to horrific losses.
Major Battles (Cont.)
5. The Battle of Cambrai (1917)-On November 20, 1917, the British launched the first full-scale offensive that was designed exclusively to accommodate the British secret weapon, the tank (so-called because when the first shipment came from England they were described as water tanks to maintain secrecy).
Turning points of the war
Military and Civilian Costs
Peace Treaties and Their Effects
Political Borders and How They Changed
Effect of Russian Revolution
Wilson's 14 Point Plan and U.S. Rejection
Approximately 12 million people died and 20 million were severely wounded.
The cost of the war was about $186 billion in direct cost, and indirectly $151 billion, more money than any previous wars in history.
Under the peace settlement, Germany was responsible, and had to pay $33 billion for repairs.
Germany and Russia lost the most number of people.
Treaty of Versailles- the peace settlement between the Allies (Big Four) and Germany at the end of the first World War.
- altered the geography of Europe- land taken from Germany
-forced Germany to pay for the damage
- hurt Germany's economy
-caused rebellions in Germany because they didn't like the new government system
Paris Peace Conference- international meeting held on January 1919 at Versailles, France. It was led by the Big Four and they came to terms with WWI.
They agreed upon many treaties including the Treaty of Versailles.
The Big Four: The Big Four consisted of four major countries and their leaders.
Great Britain- Prime Minister David Lloyd George
France- Prime Ministers Georges Clemenceau
Italy- Vittorio Orlando
U.S.- President Woodrow Wilson
gas- Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains.
machine guns- they had the fire power of 100 guns.
zeppelin- used for most of bombing raids
tank- they were used to cope with the conditions of the Western Front
planes- first used for spying work
torpedoes- The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain.
President Woodrow Wilson proposed the 14 point plan during the Paris Peace Conference. H wanted to ensure peace after the end of WWI. He appointed The Inquiry to help him create ideas for peace. He presented his idea in front of the congress on January 8, 1918. The fourteenth point that he proposed was the idea of the League of Nations. He says it guarantees “political independence and territorial integrity [of] great and small states alike.” Unfortunately, it was rejected by the U.S. because of the fear the U.S.'s ability to defend its interest would reduce and it was very expensive. Many say that the League failed due to the lack of participation from the U.S.
C. Military Buildup
1.Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy
2. Triple Entente- France, Russia, & Britain
E.Assassinations of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Effects of America Entry
End of an autocratic rule
Establishment of a socialist government
Industrial growth in economic government
Withdrawal of Russia from World War 1
Emergence of Russia as a major power of world
Equal rights to all nationalities
Saved Great Britain from bankruptcy
Helped break Germany's blockade
Marked a major turning point in helping the Allies to victory
four empires collapsed due to the war
old countries were abolished and new ones were formed
international organizations were established
many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in peoples minds