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Evolution

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Terrence Tam

on 19 June 2014

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Transcript of Evolution

Evolution
What is Evolution?
Introduction
Development
Evidence For Evolution
Evidence Against Evolution
Endless Debate
Credibility of Evolution
Conclusion
An explanation of how living organisms have evolved progessively throughout generations to the way they are today
Advocated by some scientists so it is taught at school
A theory that has not been fully proven in indisputable manner
Under uncertainty, some do not believe in evolution
How credible is evolution?

The change of inherited traits of living species over past generations
Genetic errors may happen due to mutations when the child copies the DNA of the parents which creates variation
Breeding and crossbreeding of two animals can also make changes
Half of each of the two parents' DNA will be used to make a member of a new generation
Natural selection

can be accomplished by adaptation in which a feature(s) within a variety is selected the best kind to survive
Charles Darwin
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
During the early 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed his theory of the transmutation of species which was the first fully formed theory of evolution
Lamarck did not believe that all living things shared a common ancestor like most Evolutionists today
He believed that some organisms would become more complex over its life time.
In 1858, Charles Darwin published a new theory of evolution “On the Origin of Species”
Unlike Lamarck, Darwin created the idea of the tree of life and that all species could share a common ancestor
The theory was based on the idea of natural selection, and it created a large range of evidence from animal farming, geographical distribution, fossils, organism structures, and reproduction.
Started ever since the Middle Ages
Was not studied much until the early 19th century
Evolution had many theories unlike the one today
But some people do accept those theories
The universal genetic code
The fossil record
Common traits in embryos
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Although these evidences may be convincing, it does not mean that evolution is true
The genetic code is the basic unit of genetic inheritance in genes of DNA used in making proteins of an organism.
All cells on Earth are capable of decoding any piece of DNA from any life form on Earth.
Human beings have similar genes in common with and other organisms.
This proves that people may have shared a common ancestor in the past.
Since the genes or genetic code are common to all life, evolutionists argue that there must be a common ancestor from which they descended.
Fossils found in the sedimentary rock shows how organisms have changed through history.
The simplest fossils will be found in the oldest rocks.
Evolutionists argue that more complex life form was evolved gradually and smoothly from simpler life form.
For humans (and other non-fish) the gill slits reform into the bones of the ear and jaw at a later stage in development. But, initially, all of their embryos somewhat resemble each other.
In fact, pig embryos are qute to human embryos.
Evolutionists say all organisms descended from a common ancestor.
Can be built up through evolution because of the random nature of mutations
When an antibiotic is applied, it will kill most bacteria
Leaving behind only those few cells which happen to resist the antibiotics
Through many generations, the resistant bacteria reproduce, forming a new colony where every member is resistant to the antibiotic
Natural selection is choosing which organism which is best suited for survival
However, it does not support the idea of a common ancestor
A scientific explanation of how organisms have developed through natural selection and variation over time from the common ancestor to the modern organisms
What is taught in classrooms is not only microevolution but macroevolution.
There is evidence that microevolution is true, but macroevolution remains for debate.
So far, scientists are unable to find sufficient intermediates in fossils to prove macroevolution of any kind from one species to another.
Trilobites, the now-extinct sea creature, were one of the earliest types of complex creatures on the earth
Trilobite fossils are found around the earth, and in all sedimentary rock below them, there are no other creatures with similar features.
Unable to Find Intermediates
Assumptions
When there is no real evidence, evolutionists simply make assumptions.
In Darwin's book On the Origin of Species there are some 800 subjective clauses, such as "could," "perhaps" and "possibly", with uncertainty repeatedly admitted instead of proof.
Evolution is still called a theory—a possible explanation or assumption—because it is not testable according to the scientific method or repeatable and observable by a controlling the environment, as this may require thousands or millions of years.
The law of biogenesis in biology states that only life can produce life.
The dilemma is a chicken-and-egg problem. An egg comes from a chicken, yet the chicken comes from an egg.
So the problem of the origin of life and initial reproduction is still a mystery that evolutionary science cannot adequately answer.
Biogenesis
A good example of this is the relationship between bees and flowers.
The bees need the nectar from some types of flowers to feed while these flowers need bees to pollinate them.
Both depend on each other to exist and survive.
Dependent Relationship
Until people prove evolution scientifically, there will be constant debate on whether evolution is true or not
Not a proven theory according to the current research data
Creationism can answer all these questions but is not science
The Creator is believed to create the earth but is does not make sense if he would come from nothing
In 2006, adults in thirty-two countries were asked to the assertion, “Human beings developed from earlier species of animals” by answering whether it is true or false or were unsure.
Only 40 percent of all Americans judge evolution is true. And 39 percent say it is false. However 21 percent of all Americans are unsure .
Evolution is a theory that is not completely provable yet can be possible
Since evolution has not ocurred so it is still a theory for debate
Evolution's credibility depends on whether they think it is convincing, not convincing or unsure
I dont know, I don't care, there's ferrets in my underwear!
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Artificial selection
is when two animals of different kinds are crossbred whether by breeders or by chance

When one living thing needs another different living thing to survive there is a dependent relationship.
There are two ways for creating a new variety: natural selection, and artificial selection
Tribolites in sedimentary rock.
Darwin's tree of life.
Micro-evolution
refers to small differences from the parents, but of the same species
New characteristics may result from DNA mutations and/or natural selection.
Macro-evolution
refers to the changing of one species into another species.
Fish might descend from an invertebrate animal, or whales might descend from a land mammal.
Crossbreeding


Peppered moth evolution
Example of Natural Selection
Dolphin changing into a land animal
Natural Selection and Artificial Selection
Types of Evolution
The Universal Genetic Code
The Fossil Record
Common Traits in Embryos
Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
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