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(6) Ancient Egypt

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by

Mrs. Aiello

on 21 September 2017

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Transcript of (6) Ancient Egypt

The Nile River
Ancient Egypt
Please take out your River Valley Map
Nile River flows northward for over

4,100 miles, making it the longest river in the world.

The water from the Nile River makes the soil
fertile
- good for farming

Nile was so great that the
Egyptians worshiped it as a god
who gave life and seldom turned against them.

Egypt was the “
gift of the Nile
.”
Ancient Egypt
Upper Egypt (to the south)
was a skinny strip of land from the First Cataract to the point where the river starts to fan out into many branches.

Lower Egypt (to the north, near the sea)
consisted of the Nile delta region, which begins about 100 miles before the river enters the Mediterranean.

The
delta is a broad, marshy, triangular area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river.
This rich land provided a home for many birds and wild animals.
Geography Continued..
The Pyramids
Architecture
Nile River
Ancient Egypt
Geography
Environmental Challenges
The Nile Rive flooded- however unlike Mesopotamia the flooding of the River could be predicted

The vast and forbidding deserts on either side of the Nile acted as natural barriers between Egypt and other lands. They forced Egyptians to stay close to the river, their lifeline, which reduced their interaction with other peoples.
Social Class
About 3100 B.C., a strong-willed king of Upper Egypt named
Menes
united all of Egypt.

The history of ancient Egypt would consist of
31 dynasties, spanning 2,600 years
.

To the Egyptians, kings were gods, almost as splendid and powerful as the gods of the heavens.

The Egyptian god-kings came to be called pharaohs

The pharaoh stood at the center of Egypt’s religion as well as its government and army. This type of government in which the ruler is a divine figure is called a
theocracy.
Egyptians believed that their king ruled even after his death. He had an
eternal spirit
, or
ka
(kah), which continued to take part in the governing of Egypt.

In the Egyptian’s mind, the ka remained much like a living king in its needs and pleasures.

Since
kings expected to reign forever, their tombs were even more important than their palaces.


For the kings of the Old Kingdom,
the resting place after death was an immense structure
called a
pyramid
.
Religion and Life
Egyptian Writing
Egyptian Science and Technology
The early Egyptians were
polytheistic, believing in many gods.

The most important gods were
Ra, the sun god
, and
Horus, the god of light.

The most important goddess was
Isis
, who represented the
ideal mother and wife
.

In all, Egyptians worshiped more than
2,000 gods and goddesses.
Death and After Life
Egyptians believed they would be judged for their deeds when they died.

Osiris, the powerful god of the dead
, would weigh each dead person’s heart. To win eternal life, the heart could be no heavier than a feather. If the heart tipped the scale, showing that it was heavy with sin, a fierce beast known as the Devourer of Souls would pounce on the impure heart and gobble it up. But if the soul passed this test for purity and truth, it would live forever in the beautiful Other World.

Egyptians preserved a dead person’s body by
mummification—embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying.
Crude pictographs were the earliest form of writing in Egypt, but scribes quickly developed a more flexible writing system called
hieroglyphics

This term comes from the Greek words hieros and gluphe, meaning “sacred carving.”

Hieroglyphics could be used almost like letters of the alphabet.

Although hieroglyphics were first written on stone and clay, but then shifter to papyrus.

Papyrus reeds grew in the marshy delta. The Egyptians split the reeds into narrow strips, dampened them, and then pressed them. As the papyrus dried, the plant’s sap glued the strips together into a paperlike sheet.
This is the step-by-step process* of how mummification took place:

1. Pull brain out of nose using a hook
2. Make a cut on the left side of the body near the tummy
3. Remove all internal organs
4. Let the internal organs dry
5. Place the lungs, intestines, stomach and liver inside jars
6. Place the heart back inside the body
7. Rinse inside of body with wine and spices
8. Cover the corpse with salt for 70 days
9. After 40 days stuff the body with linen or sand to give it a more human shape
10. After the 70 days wrap the body from head to toe in bandages
11. Place in a sarcophagus (a type of box like a coffin)
Egyptians
developed a system of written numbers for counting, adding, and subtracting.

Farmers used an early form of
geometry
to survey and reset property boundaries after the annual floods.

Mathematical knowledge helped Egypt’s skillful
engineers and architects
as well.

To help them
keep track of the time between floods and plan their planting season
, the Egyptians developed a
calendar.
Could women rule as Pharaoh's in Ancient Egypt?
Yes, two in particular who made history were Hatshepsut and Cleopatra
Full transcript