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on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of Empowerment

Do you feel empowered?

What is empowerment?

Roadblocks & Barriers
Pressure on faculty to present massive amounts of material
Judging the graduates on their efficiency
"Humanizing" the process of Knowledge Delivery and Care Delivery

Empowerment as a vessel that takes students to the better destination
Faculty should not:
reduce expectations
shoulder some of the responsibility for learning
Why Is This Important?
Skilled nurse
Interpersonal skills - 100%
Critical thinking - 94%
Technical skills - 59%
Patients described nurses who were friendly, caring, compassionate, kind, and good listeners as nurses who were very skilled
Nurses who displayed confidence were also viewed as skilled nurses by many patients

Teach knowledge and skills, empower, instill confidence
Graduate new and better nurses each year
No mention of empowerment until 1980s

Empowerment in School
Model of Empowerment
Why Do We Need It?
What is the purpose of school?
Instructor/Student Relationship
"The interpersonal process of providing the resources, tools, and environment to develop, build, and increase ability and effectiveness of others to set and reach goals for individual and social ends"

"...the raising of consciousness, the development of a strong positive esteem, and the political skills needed to negotiate and change the healthcare system"
Improve quality of nurses
The Worrell, McGinn, Black, Holloway, and Ney (1996) Model for Empowerment
Critical elements of empowerment rely not only on the process of being empowered but also on the outcome of empowerment
The model lists four critical elements:
How Can We Do This?
Positive affirmation of clinical instructors
What is this?
How do we apply the model?
Instructor/Student Relationship
Now: constructivist paradigm
Work safely and effectively in the ‘real world’ of constantly evolving practice environments

Honest feedback is given to students to encourage growth
Benefit of peer feedback and the value of professional colleagues
Instructor/Student Relationship
Now: constructivist paradigm
In the constructivist learning environment, teachers and students interact to build upon existing knowledge and co-construct new knowledge
The teacher facilitates discussion through questioning of students’ ideas, and creates learning activities that engage students in problem-solving and inquiry
(Babenko-Mould, Iwasiw, Andreusyszyn, Laschinger & Weston, 2012)
Empowerment in School
Empowerment in School
Empowerment in School
Empowerment in School
Clinical learning outcomes:
Knowledge & application
Critical thinking/skills of analysis
Professional identity
Social justice/effective citizenship
Enhancement of nurses' ability to meet clients' needs - knowledge/application
Improvement of nurses' own professional concept - knowledge/application
Increase in nurses' ability to solve problems effectively - critical thinking/skills of analysis
Changing not only the nursing profession but also the current health care system - professional identity
Increasing the professional stature and recognition of nurses, as well as enhancing nursing students' feelings and behaviors associated with a professional identity - professional identity
Develop autonomy and accountability for professional practice - professional identity
Essential in preparing nurses to be change agents in the rapidly changing world of health care - social justice/effective citizenship
Take control of their own lives

Motivate students to “...be more responsive to societal needs, more successful in humanizing the highly technological milieus of health care, more caring and compassionate, more insightful...more creative, more capable of critical thinking, and better able to bring scholarly approaches to client problems...”
Conflicts in Research
The Challenge
Critical Thinking
Generous Bladder
Nursing Witchcraft
Conger and Kanungo (1988) defined empowerment as a motivational construct which involves enabling by leaders
Expressing confidence in subordinates
Fostering opportunities to participate in decision-making
Providing autonomy from bureaucratic constraints
Enhancing meaningfulness of work
Facilitating goal accomplishment

Codependency as attempts to control one another
Neither participant is empowered
Empowerment arms us with the skills necessary to tackle nursing in all settings and in life
Empowerment is a fresh concept from a clinical student’s perspective
Current research on empowerment is either still centered on managerial positions, or on the clinical instructor’s experience; need more research from the student’s perspective

(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
Roadblocks & Barriers
Enabling in academia by well-meaning faculty who:
allow or encourage students' irresponsible behavior
shielding them from the consequences of their actions
fostering dependence on faculty as the final authority
inhibiting the critical thinking aspect of learning
(Babenko-Mould, Iwasiw, Andreusyszyn, Laschinger & Weston, 2012)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Wysong & Driver, 2009)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Babenko-Mould, Iwasiw, Andreusyszyn, Laschinger & Weston, 2012)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
(Babenko-Mould, Iwasiw, Andreusyszyn, Laschinger & Weston, 2012)
(Espeland & Shanta, 2001)
Babenko-Mould, Y., Iwasiw, C., Andreusyszyn, M., Laschinger, H., & Weston,
W. (2012). Nursing students’ perceptions of clinical teachers' use of empowering teaching behaviours: Instrument psychometrics and application. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 9(1), doi: 10.1515/1548-923X.2245

Espeland, K., & Shanta, L. (2001). Empowering versus enabling in academia.
Journal of Nursing Education, 40(8), 342-346.

Felts, J. (Producer). (2014, 01 01). Miracles [Web Photo]. Retrieved from

Gaines, C., Jenkins, S., & Ashe, W. (2004). Empowering nursing faculty and
students for community service. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(11), 522-525.

Lampert, L. (Producer). (2013, 12 17). Nurse volunteer opportunities: Helping
during disaster [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.mightynurse.com/nurse-volunteer-opportunities-helping-during-disaster-stories/

Wysong, P., & Driver, E. (2009). Patients' perceptions of nurses' skill.
CriticalCareNurse, 29(4), 24-37.

(Felts, Miracles)

(Lampert, Nurse volunteer opportunities: Helping during disaster)
By: Ioana Golubovici & Pavneet Kalkat
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