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The Jesuits and Ursulines In New France
Transcript of The Jesuits and Ursulines In New France
In New France The Goal- The Challenges- In their struggle to convert the aboriginals of New France the Jesuits faced many hardships. Not only did the priests spread diseases throughout the tribes they also battled with different Aboriginal tribes. The conflict between the Aboriginal groups was caused by some of the priests trying to make the Aboriginals give up their sacred traditions. This conflict with the Aboriginals led to the killing of many priests in Iroquois raids and the destruction of the priest outpost St.Marie. Another problem the Jesuits faced was in 1626 Quebec was captured under the British flag causing all priests to leave for several years till Quebec was handed back to the French delaying their arrivals in New France to 1634. The Successes- Although the Jesuits faced many challenges during their attempts to convert the aboriginals of New France they also had tremendous amounts of success. The Jesuits established over 5 chapels in Huronia and baptized over 1000 Huron natives. They also established many schools in New France educating many children. The Jesuit Priests In 1611 two Jesuit priests arrived in New France sent out by the French king and his ministers. Their plan was to convert the aboriginal tribes of North America into christians. The French believed that the colony of New France would be stronger as a whole if everyone was catholic. The Jesuits were extremely persistent in their attempts to convert the aboriginals and their struggle aided greatly in the development of New France. The Jesuits also strived to create schools for boys in the settlement of New France and for the boys of aboriginal tribes. Where they are now- Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola, a co-founder of the Society of Jesus was born on October 23, 1491 and died on July 31, 1556. Ignatius was a spanish knight coming from a noble spanish family and had been a priest since 1537. Ignatius founded the Society of Jesus in 1534 and became it's first Superior General. He had met with a group of students from the University of Paris in a crypt under the church of Saint.Dennis. They had called themselves the Society of Jesus and were determined to spread the word of the lord. During the Counter-Reformation Ignatius was seen as a leader and his loyalty and obedience to the Catholic Church was recognized and admired. After being seriously wounded Ignatius set out for spiritual retreat, and after seeing a vision of Mary Ignatius would spend hours a day praying in a nearby cave. Soon after Ignatius set out on the conversion of non-christians in the holy land. In his early life Ignatius took up arms for the Duke, making him very useful to the Duke. This led him to fight many battles for the Duke till he was injured in a battle between the French. After a life of many religious acts and deeds Ignatius became patron saint of catholic soldiers. The Ursuline Nuns Many of the Jesuits in New France died from various causes. The main causes of death though were from diseases, cold winters, or natives killing them. The natives killed the priests because the natives were outraged due to the fact that the priests had brought back many diseases to their villages. The natives also hated the fact that the priests kept trying to change their traditions and cultural formalities. Today the Jesuits are continuing their mission to spread the roman catholic faith around the world. The goal- The Jesuits and the Ursulines shared a common goal, to convert the aboriginals of New France to Christianity. But another main goal of the Ursulines was to establish convents and schools in New France, for both First Nations girls and daughters of settlers. These schools taught a variety of subjects such as: reading, writing, arithmetic, and homemaking. The graduates of these schools were known to become nuns, housewives or mothers. The challenges- Just like the Jesuits, the Ursulines were also threatened by the native peoples. From 1661-1662 the Ursuline convent was threatened by a group of Iroquois, when one of its chaplains,the Sulpician Vignal, was slain and devoured. An Ursuline convent was burned down in 1650 and was rebuilt soon after. In 1690 the convent went under siege and bombardment by Sir William Phips under the British flag. Many years later the convent went under siege by James Wolfe giving the British control of Quebec and the convent . The new governor Murray was friendly to the institution and used the convent to heal the sick and wounded. The convent soon went on as normal with no problem adapting to its change of leader. Other than a problem with the natives the Ursulines had few problems with their attempts to convert and educate the aboriginals of New France. The successes- Compared to the Jesuits, the Ursulines were much more successful in their mission to convert and educate the people of New France. The Ursulines opened many convents across New France and Quebec. They opened a convent at Three Rivers in 1697, a convent in Roberval in 1882, as well as a convent in Stanstead in 1884 and a convent and a school was founded in Rimouski in 1906, all educating and converting the youth and adults of New France. Not only that, in 1642 Jeanne Mance emigrated to Montreal, where she founded a hospital, where she spent over 30 years helping the sick and injured. Where they are now- The Ursulines remained in New France, continuing their mission, doing charity work, and helping the sick and wounded. One of the original convents of the nuns is still standing today and is being used as a chapel and museum of the Ursuline history. Today, the Ursuline Nuns continue their mission all around the world housing congregations in Quebec, Ottawa, and the USA. Marie de l'Incarnation Marie de l'incarnation was born on October 28, 1599 in Tours, France and died on April 30, 1672. Marie was the daughter of bakers who did not understand her desire for religious life never supported her. At the age of 7 Marie experienced her first vision that led her to a religious lifestyle. Marie was married at the age of 17 to a master silk worker named Claude Martin. When Marie was 19 her husband died leaving her to raise her two-year old son. While raising her son Marie took up a job managing her brother-in-law's transportation business. Marie decided to enter a convent after reading about the missionary work taking place in New France. In 1639, Marie traveled to New France, where she founded two convents dedicated to the education and conversion of French and First Nations women. Marie spent most of her life writing letters to the people of France, telling them about the Aboriginal traditions, and Catholic missions that occurred there. These letters stirred interest, which convinced many people to move the colony. The letters Marie wrote informed us about life in New France at the time. Not only was Marie a great teacher and nun, she also played a very important diplomatic role in the colony. Marie was accustomed the Aboriginal traditions and she took in many of the children given to them by the Aboriginals. By taking in these children Marie was viewed as taking part of their traditions and therefore created strong ties with Aboriginal kinship groups. Marie also wrote many Huron and Algonkian dictionaries, which led to improved communication between the French and Aboriginals. Marie led a strong, religious, amazing life, helping everyone and anyone, truly showing us what being self-less really is all about.