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Social Origins Theory

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Gary Duan

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of Social Origins Theory

Social Origins Theory Statist - Limited industrialization, considerable powerful landed elites, weak urban middle and working classes, strong external colonial influences
- Japan, Brazil
- highly instrumental policy posture of the state; NP sector development depending on state’s interests
The nonprofit sector is embedded in different countries’ cultural, religious, political and economic contexts.

Two dimensions:
1. The extent of government social welfare spending
2. The scale of the nonprofit sector
Four categories: Social Origins Theory Low Government Social Welfare Spending and Large Nonprofit Sector Strong Commercial Middle Class Religious Influences Stressing Individualism Religious Communities Large government social-welfare spending + large nonprofit sector

Landed elites retain a significant power base

Organized religion and state organs partner

Working-class pressures were contained

Ruled by conservative Christian Democratic Union Corporatist Limited Public-Social Welfare Spending and Limited Nonprofit Sector Limited Industrialization Considerable Powerful Landed Elites Weak Urban Middle and Working Classes Strong External Colonial Influences Theory is a framework which helps us to... Social welfare agreements to satisfy working class
High government and NPO involvement
NPOs used to implement government policy
France shifting to this model Liberal Allows to determine individual
heavily constrained choices
whether to rely on the market, nonprofit,
or state for key
services based on path
dependency theory. Goethe-Institut Brazil as a Statist Model Government funded NPO

Aimed at increasing cultural exchange

3,300 employees

Mainly government funded

278 million euro budget High Public-Social Welfare Spending:
Increased from 230B real (1995) to 640B real (2010), more than double
Bolsa Familia: Conditional Cash Tranfers for eduction

Growing Nonprofit Sector:
Social Enterprise World Forum Brazil, 2012 by NESsT
Incubators, Accelerators, Impact Investors, Venture Philanthropists

Land still controlled by wealthy, large urban slums, and inequality. Large Bottom of the Pyramid issue. Follows the path dependency theory

Land is controlled by the wealthy
Strong external colonial influences
Moderate industrialization with ISI
Weak urban middle and working class Brazil as a Gamer Changer The Liberal United States of America To assess the predictions made by the theory, the development of nonprofit sectors has to be followed in different countries. Development of the Liberal:
High level of private philanthropy due to past of middle class confront upper class
Commercialism of NP sector, reliance on private market

High Government Spending:
60% of $6.28T went to Pension, Health, Welfare and Education

Very Large and Diverse Nonprofit Sector:
Nonprofit spending exceeded Political Campaign spending in 2010, more donations for NP sector
Traditional NP, NP Social Enterprises, Venture Philanthropist, and more! Social Democratic High public social-welfare spending
Limited non-profit sector FINLAND Contemporary pressures are likely to increase the role of non-profit sector. Cooperation with the government Effective political power of working class Limited church influence Public-private partnership to reduce welfare-state's burden classify nonprofit regimes in terms of their size and composition
account for anomalies Liberal
Social Democratic
Corporatist Criticism by Antonin Wagner:

"Nonprofit organizations should be viewed not as forming an institutional sector but as part of a complex network of organizations linked together in the publics phere."
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