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Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching
Transcript of Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching
Language Users and L1 Users Conclusion •L2 users could be more successful if they saw themselves as between two cultures •Placing more emphasis on L2 users and using the L1 in teaching: We will help people use L2s, not imitate native speakers All of these factors are innate to the monolingual speaker, but when the L2 learner does not master each of these factors, they view it as failing to become fluent. “Very few L2 users can be mistaken for native speakers.” Going Beyond the
Native Speaker in
Language Teaching By Sergio, Samantha, Catherine,
Courtney & Kaysie “Natáhnout bačkory” 'to
straighten one's soft shoes' "The ultimate attainment of L2 learning should be defined in terms of knowledge of the L2." There are, however, individuals who do
manage to reach the level of the native speaker but their numbers are few and one study even equates them to Olympic athletes and opera singers. The L1 Knowledge of
Multicompetent Language Users L1 L2 -phonology
-similar words = different meanings
-reading “Multicompetent L2 users do not have the same knowledge of the
L1 as monolinguals do.” Native Speaker vs. L2 user what's the difference? What is a native speaker? Some things to consider 1.
Subconscious knowledge of rules 2. Intuitiveness 3. Social skills 4. Creativity 5. Identity 6. Deviation 7. Fluent discourse 8. Translation Cook's Beef? Deviation? Fluency? social skills? creativity? translation? identity? These are not all needed. Her definition?
"...a person is a native speaker of the
language learnt first." Children learning two languages from birth have two L1's L2 user can achieve some characteristics
above but not the biodevelopmental requirement Quality, expertise vs. native speaker status Monolingualism? Native speakers are monolingual,
still speak language from childhood What is an L2 user? Simple!
An L2 user is someone who is using a
L2 user vs. L2 learner?
(the distinction is very difficult) L2 Or Def Diff ere nce icit ? L2 users differ from L1 monolinguals in the way they use the L1 and L2. Should they be seen as deficits? People cannot be expected to conform to
the norm of a group to
which they do not belong. People who speak
differently from some arbitrary group
are not speaking better or worse, just differently. L2 user are monolingual speakers.
They are constantly compared to native
speakers and in turn, suffer from a lack
of self-esteem. NOT What are some pressures of L2 users to become native? L2 user vs. L2 learner Set Goals Appropriate to L2 users Aims of language teaching can be divided into internal classroom goals that relate to the students' life within the classroom, such as communicating their backgrounds and feelings.
External goals relate to the students' use of English outside the classroom, such as traveling and living in actual the environment. Why is native
unnecessary? Target based external goals were emphasized in audio-lingual and communicative methods of teachings.
Practical way of moving towards an L2 user model is to present the students with examples of the language of L2 users and of the language addressed to L2 users. •There are 2 types of situations in every course book
1. Exclusively native
2. Situations where an L2 learner or low-level L2 user plays a role L2 User Situations & Roles •Basic need is to present situations with L2 users
-Need to recast L2 users in a positive light Cushner and Brislin: One possible technique Present a series of intercultural problems, which students then interpret and discuss L2 user as the nonnative-speaker teacher? Students may feel overwhelmed by native-speaker teachers. A nonnative-speaker teacher presents a more achievable model Use Teaching Models That Acknowledge the Student’s L1 •The intralingual strategy- minimizing the role of the L1
-Teaching techniques should not rely on L1
•Two ways of using L1 in the classroom
1. For presenting meaning
2. For communication during classroom activities
•The L1 is permanently in students’ minds
-The difference is just whether it’s visible or not
•See the L1 as a positive factor in the class
•Introduce activities that deliberately involve both languages Base Teaching on Descriptions of L2 Users •Descriptive approaches would
be far more useful if L2 users were represented
-Applied linguists don’t know exactly what typical successful L2 users know, except through descriptions of native speakers
•See what can be gleaned from accounts of L2 learning
-Suggest intermediate goals for students The Native Speaker in Language Teaching and SLA Research Speakers have many identities, not just 'native' Language Teaching Native speaker never overt, but always present Textbook problems NS+NS dialogue SLA Research -Interlanguage in theory -Comparative Fallacy in practice -Native speaker-like production = Success -Deviation from NS = Failure Is it okay to use native speakers' speech at all when studying SLA? When? -Closeness Fallacy (Klein and Purdue, 1992) -Coincidentally native speaker-like utterances Native Speaker comparison seems to be ever-present, even if unintentional. Why is it so instinctual? For perspective only! NOT for a model of achievement. Native Speaker is "a ghostlike presence." samantha kaysie courtney sergio Language Processing by Multicompetent Language Users Multicompetent language users constantly have the L1 available.
So, if needed, the L2 user could compensate for gaps in their vocabulary. L2 users are faster and
moreaccurat e in a language-switching task on an auditory version of the STROOP test (STROOP Test?) in this case, asked people to
identify if the words 'high' and 'low'
were actually high or low when they
were pronounced. Some facts -L2 users tend to switch from one language to another for private purposes
-61% prefer the L1 for working out sums
-62% prefer the L2 for keeping a diary
-44% prefer the L2 for remembering phone numbers Code Switching Multicompetent users often engage in a process called CODESWITCHING this occurs when someone converses with someone who also knows both languages. The result is an alternation between the two languages. Codeswitching is the most obvious achievement of the multicompetent user that a monolingual native speaker cannot duplicate Thought Processes of Multicompetent Language Users ? Obviously, multicompetent and monolingual speakers will differ in certain thought processes, like language-related cognitive tasks.
Working memory span in the L2 is usually slightly less than the L1, and there is usually a longer reaction time in naming objects.
This is NOT a disability, but is rather attributed to the fact that they have available "more than one response to the same stimulus"
This is why L2s are taught in many cultures, it is seen as opening a door to understanding language and culture Hypothesized benefit of an
L2 is "brain training" or learning
other mental skills specific to L2 users.
SLA research has shown bilinguals have a keener awareness of language itself, and can detect grammatical properties of their L1 sooner than monolinguals.
In general, bilinguals are better at separating meaning from form.
Example: English-speaking children who learned Italian for one week the first year of school had advantages over other children when they learned to read. students do not remain unchanged by their new language "Deviation from the norms of either language occurs
in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their
familiarity with more than one language" - Interlanguage
Multicompetence The L2 Knowledge of
Multicompetent Language Users "Several experiments have shown that L2 users become slightly slower at processing the L1 as they gain proficiency in an L2"