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Transcript of Trial
THE GOSPELS Jesus WHO IS JESUS? -Latin form of the Greek Iesous which in turn is the transliteration of the Hebrew Jeshua, Joshua or Jehoshua meaning Jehova is Salvation. Christ -Christos, the greek equivalent of the Hebrew Messias meaning annointed. ∞ Only after the Resurrection did the title gradually pass into a proper name, and the expression Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus became only 1 designation. Jesus is the son of God which means 'God Saves'.
The name signifies that the very name of God is present
in the person of His Son, made man for the universal and
definitive from sins.
It is the divine name that alone brings Salvation.
Through his passion, death and resurrection He has accomplished the salvation if humankind.
In Jesus, God recapitulates all of His History of Salvation on behalf of men. Jesus and the Gospels The World of Jesus -Jesus is NOT just a myth or
a legend but a real person who
lived and walked upon the Earth.
-Jesus' life and teaching would
be greatly influenced by the
context, that time and place, that
world. 1. The Land of Jesus and its People -According to the Bible, Jesus lived under the rule of the Roman empire, in a small country between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, in a land called Canaan, Israel, Palestine.
-The land, once described as 'overflowing with milk and honey', was given to pasturing and fruit tree agriculture.
-Jesus was from Nazareth, a small town in Galilee.
-The dominant ethnic group in Jesus' Palestine,
who distinguished themselves by race and region.
- These languages would be variedly attested to
Hebrew: classic language
Aramaic: common language.
Greek: widely used in the Roman empire
Latin: Imperial Language. 2. Politics and Economy during Jesus' time -The time of the Roman empire, which effectively ruled through kings and chiefs from among the locals. Herod the great -an Idumean (half-jew)
-appointed by Rome as King of Judea.
-built cities, palaces, and rebuilt the
temple of Jerusalam. when he died,
his territory was divided among his 3 sons:
Herod Antipas - Galilee
Philip - northern and northern-eastern parts.
Archaelaus - Samaria and Judea.
- Later on, this territory was placed under the
administration of Roman Prefects and Procurators.
∞Pontius Pilate- most famous
-Economically, the people of the land were given to
pasturing, to agriculture, to merchant trade. 3. The Religion of Jesus Jew - applied to both race and religion.
-The jewish religion claims direct link to the ancient Israelite religion, as attested in the Hebrew Scriptures, esp. the Torah (Law),
-Their central tennet:
belief in the one God.
This was Jesus' Faith
- Temple of Jerusalem- center of the religious life of the Jews with a sacrifice and a worship system run by priests and Levites.
- Great feasts:
Tabernacles/Booths when Jews from all over would make a Pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Several groups within Judaism existed during the time of Jesus: Sadducees Pharisees -descendants of Zadok.
-priests and religious conservatives Essenes Zealots -Only had regard for the Torah,
and rejected doctrinal developments brought by oral tradition. - Did not believe in angels, not
that human beings have an
immortal soul, nor in the
resurrection of the dead. - 'separated ones'
-many of them are learned lay scribes (men who copied and studied the Torah) - Believe in the resurrection
of the dead. -strict observers of the Torah,
w/c they accordingly preserved
and protected through elaborate
oral traditions. - -belonged to a sect generally held
to beresponsible for the so called
'Dead Sea Scrolls' -Their extant writings reveal that they
practiced ascetism, celibacy and
common ownership. -Observed the Torah in a very strict manner, but distanced themselves
from the Temple and from the
official priesthood in Jerusalem, -Revolutionaries who were violently pitted
against Roman rule.
- Some documents referred to them as
patriots, freedom fighters, briggands, terrorists -saw the Jewsish Messiah as a
political, military leader who lead a revolution to over-throw the Roman government. Titles of Jesus - Origin Christian Meaning Christ/ Messiah Lord Aram. Adonai Gk. Christios Heb. Mashiah “the anointed one” (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Jesus is the promised Messiah Jesus is divine person with divine authority. Son of God OT: angels, righteous men, or to important judge of ruler, to Israel as a nation
special sense: true King of Israel. Jesus is the messianic King, he is a Divine Person who shares the nature of His Father. Son of Man Semitic idiom used to denote a self or humanity in a humble manner. Jesus is the ruler and the savior of the world Son of David the kingdom of David never ends. Jesus is the eternal King who will established God’s eternal kingdom. Word of God Gk. Logos “word phrase, sentence speech reason mind.” Jesus is the fullness of God’s self-communication. Lamb of God OT, the lamb was an animal of sacrifice offered to God for the forgiveness of sins. Jesus death was an atoning sacrifice for the forgiveness of our sins Eternal High Priest primary role is to offer sacrifice to God Jesus is the one mediator between God and man, who offered himself as a sacrifice for our sins. Suffering Servant Heb. Ebed YHWH “servant of God” Jesus is the fulfillment of the prophecy on the suffering and death, he brought us justification. Gospel and gospels -“Gospels” comes form the Old English term “godspel,” which means “good news.”-It is a literal translation of the Greek euaggelion. Therefore, it is a form of literature pertaining to the good news of salvation proclaimed by Jesus Christ.-The gospels are faith documents/ accounts describing what early Christian believe about Jesus. Thus, they “are not literal, chronological account of the words and deed of Jesus” (“The Historical Truth of Gospels,” Pontifical Biblical Commission).-They are primary and best source of information concerning Jesus. Apostles The term apostle is derived from Koine Greek (apóstolos), meaning one who is sent forth as a messenger in contrast to a disciple who is a "student" that learns from a "teacher” Apostle is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word shaliah. Traditionally, Jesus is said to have had Twelve Apostles who spread the Gospel after his resurrection though there is also a tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of Seventy Apostles. Stage 1: The ministry of the historical Jesus Stages in the Formation of the Gospels Stage 2: The Oral Preaching of the Apostles Stage 3: The Actual Writing of the gospels Reasons of the early Christians of writing the gospels:a. The death of the apostles and other witness of Jesus.b. The need for the organized instruction to the many converts.c. The norm of Jesus’ life and ministry as measure for authentic preaching. 4 gospels represent the end products of a long process of development Order of the Gospels -Traditionally, Mathew’s Gospel was originally written in Aramaic and later translated into Greek. So it was thought that Christians coming from Jewish background in Palestine at a time when the apostles had not started to preach the word of God, thus in the canonical, Mathew’s gospel came first.
-However, modern scholars accept that Marks came first because Mathew and John used the gospel of Mark in the composition of their gospels.
-John’s Gospel was assigned the last place because early tradition considered it as the last to be written in order of time. Classification of the Gospels (Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. VI) Synoptic Gospels -synoptic from Gk “syn” + “opticos” meaning “To view with the same look.” - Mark, Mathew and Luke are called synoptic gospels The Gospel of John -its relation with the synoptic is that of dissimilarity rather then likeness. - it narrates but few incidents in common with the first three gospels and its style, language and arrangement of the order of events is entirely different. The Incarnation “Jesus Christ is God in the flesh” - this is called the Doctrine of the Incarnation (from the L. care, carnis, meaning “flesh”) means that God has chosen to take on human nature in the unique, historical person of Jesus of Nazareth in order to bring us salvation.The gospels attest to this in manifold ways, depicting Jesus as divinely endowed as well as all-too-human, being born into a human family with exception of sin. The Divinity of Jesus There is a controversy about the deity of Jesus among the first Christians. The bible teaches us that Son of God had already been existing prior to his becoming man to creation itself. St. Irenaeus St. Polycarp St. Justin Martyr St. Ignatius of Antioch St. Clement of Rome A. The Resurrection -It is the central truth of our Christian Faith.-We believe that after Jesus had died on the cross, he resurrected on the third day.
-The rising of Jesus form the dead changed the way his disciples knew Him.
-The resurrection of Jesus was, is, will always be the most sensational event ever to take place in history.
-It is an on-going dynamic of the life of God in Jesus.Christianity is the expression of faith in the resurrection of Jesus. The Humanity of Jesus -The bible tells us the Jesus was born of a human mother that He really had a human body and underwent the human process of growth.
-Being human, Jesus experienced its limitations like hunger, thirst, etc.
-He also experienced temptations when He was a human.
-The CCC gives us four reason why the Son of God assumed the human nature. 1. To save us from sins by reconciling us with God.
2. To make us know God’s Love
3. To become our model of Holiness
4. To make us partakers of the Divine Nature The Infancy Narratives -accounts of Jesus birth and early childhood
-not primarily biographical but are theological statements about the human beginnings of Jesus.
-found only in Matthew, concentrates on the figure of Joseph, and Luke, focuses on Mary.
-an exquisite portrayal of God’s shaping of history begun in Israel and completed in Christ and the Church.
-The infancy narratives are attempts to describe Jesus Christ through an imaginative story regarding his origins. (MIDRASH)
-Thus, the stories of Christ’s birth were not written to tell us the exact chronology of events, or the actual events that took place. Rather, the authors wrote the infancy narratives to tell us who Christ is. Matthew 1-2: The Birth of Jesus -serve as preparation for the main narrative of Jesus’ public ministry.1. The genealogy of Jesus2. The announcement to Joseph and the birth of Jesus3. The episode of the Magi, with the portent of the star and their encounter with Herod4. The Flight from Massacre Luke 1:5-2:52: The Birth of Jesus -Luke begins his gospel with an infancy accounts-parallelism between John and Jesus-Angelic pre-announcement of the birth
-A hymn celebrates the event-Birth happened by the hand of God
-gives us the Roman imperial census as context for the journey to Bethlehem-it was the shepherds (not magi) who visited the new born child at the angel’s bidding (not a star)-there is no flight to Egypt, no massacre; yet there are peculiar scenes:1. Jesus Circumcision
2. The presentation at the temple3. The adolescent Jesus’ finding at the temple Crucial Common Points: 1. Joseph and Mary were his known parents
2. An angel announced Jesus’ birth (to Joseph- Matthew; to Mary- Luke)
3. He was virginally conceived through the holy spirit
4. Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in Judea
5. Jesus grew up in Nazareth Jesus Hidden Years - Matthew: temporary sojourn in Egypt and eventual settlement in Nazareth in Galilee- Gospel: Jesus life in Nazareth, thus non-canonical documents have speculated scenarios and events for this period.- Catechism of Catholic Church: Jesus shared the conditions of the vast majority of human beings; a daily life spent w/o evident greatness, life of manual labor. His religious life was that of Jew, obedient to the law of God, a life in the community. Points of agreement between the 2 accounts -Jesus’ parents are Mary and Joseph
-Mary and Joseph are engaged but not married at the time of Jesus’ conception
-Joseph is of the Davidic Life
-Mary conceives through the Holy Spirit
-An angel directs that the child should be named Jesus
-The angel says that Jesus is to be a savior
-Jesus is born in Bethlehem at the time of Herod the Great
-Jesus is raised in Nazareth Mary in the Gospels Mary is the Mother of Jesus -Defines her whole function in the work of salvation.“Favored one (in the gospel of Luke)”-Highly-favored because she is chosen among all women to be the Mother of Jesus-Acknowledge as the “graced” and “blessed” of God, and proclaimed as blessed among all women and “mother of my lord”-Mary is a young Jewish woman betrothed to Joseph but she conceived Jesus in her womb by the power of the Holy Spirit. She is the mother who gave life to the Messiah (in the gospel of Matthew) . Mary is the Woman of Faith -To believe means to abandon oneself to the truth of the word of the Living God
-Elizabeth proclaimed Mary blessed for her faith.
-Mary is considered a believer. She accept the word of God.
-Prayer/hymn-the most visible and profound expression of faith
-Magnificat: grateful praise to God
-The faith of Mary is a humble faith. She is truly the first and foremost disciple, the model of discipleship
-St. Augustine declared that Mary is more blessed because she embraces faith in Christ than because she conceives the flesh of Christ Mary as Evangelizer -Mary as the bearer of the gospel
-She initiated the proclamation of the gospel into the world
-She became the first messenger of the gospel to her relative and to the ancient people whom Elizabeth represented Evangelization in the church began with Mary. She, the bearer of Jesus, evangelized through her simple and joyful presence, through her simple but cordial and profound greeting… Mary as Associate of Jesus in Suffering -Mary’s faith was tested through sufferings and trials.
-Mary lived in the intimacy with the mystery of her Son.
-She advanced in her “pilgrimage of faith” while Jesus “increase in age, wisdom and grace… and in favor with God and with man.”
-Mary realized that her faith and relationship with Jesus, as a believer, is of great importance that her biological maternity and maternal relationship with him.
-Mary is placed among the first disciples of Jesus who preserved in the faith.-Mary faithfully preserved her union with her son even to the cross. Mary as Intercessor Mary represents people out a situation who believed in Jesus and expected help from him. She acted as an intercessor before Jesus. She cares about others and their needs. She believed in Jesus, listened and fulfilled his words but she also asked others to do the same. Mary as Mother of Jesus’ Disciples -It is Jesus who addresses his mother. She had to accept the disciple as her son and remain with him to encourage, educate and be emulated in faith
-Mary, standing at the foot of the cross is given as a mother to the beloved disciple by the crucified Jesus. Thus, Mary, the mother of the savior becomes the spiritual mother of all, particularly of the disciples of Christ in the order of grace.
-Luke Emphasized Mary’s presence during the founding moment of the Christian community when the Holy Spirit consecrated her to fulfill her mission – the culmination of Mary’s pilgrimage of faith, as She joined the apostles together with some women in the community of the risen Lord.