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计算机世界的教条和谎言

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Yang Shuo

on 14 September 2013

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Transcript of 计算机世界的教条和谎言

Computer Paradigms
Main Idea
谎言和误解
"All understanding begins with our not accepting the world as it appears" –- Susan Sontag
计算机世界的教条和谎言
科技是客观的吗?
计算机网络历史上的人物
Intuitive Software
现在我们常说的“Intuitive Software”其实并没有任何软件是可以凭直觉弄懂的。大部分情况下指的是一旦经过演示之后就显而易见的。但是在它演示之前,人是没有直觉的感受的
好的界面设计是会逐渐的展开自己,比方说在吃豆豆这个游戏里,有很多的功能你刚开始是不知道的,而是当你玩的时候才发现。最好的表达方式是"self-revealing"
GUI Interface
今天大家常说的"Graphical User Interface"(GUI) 其实是个错误的命名
Mac,Windows, Unix 全都是一样的GUI-
(全都是基于1970 年代 Xerox PARC 设计而来的)
Cut and Paste
文字处理工具
雨果的手稿
达芬奇的手稿
Galileo 的手稿
火车轨道之争
为什么现在火车轨道的宽度都是: 4 ft 8 1/2in?
Isambard Kingdom Brunel : 7 ft 1/4 in
列车可以走的更快,更安全、稳定和舒适、更大的承载量
经过计算和实验,这个宽度是提供快速列车的最优方案
尼古拉·特斯拉
为爱迪生工作
爱迪生为了证明交流电的危险性,他用交流电击将大象电死, 他用花25 美分雇人去偷小镇上人家养的宠物小猫小狗,然后公开将它们电死。
Wikipedia : 5000 美金
"Tesla, you don't understand our American humor."[45][46]
Instead, Edison offered a USD10 a week raise over Tesla's USD18 per week salary; Tesla refused the offer and immediately resigned
x射线
无线电
当Marconi因为无线电出名的时候,特斯拉说”他用了17 个属于我的专利“

http://theoatmeal.com/comics/tesla
Vannevar Bush
Dean of MIT School of Engineering
President of Carnegie Institution
Manhattan Project
1945 年的传奇论文 "As we may think"
启发了计算机网络的概念,启发了Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson.
"As We May Think"
Essay 1945
Memex concept 1930s
Douglas Engelbart
Stanford Research Institute (SRI)
Creator of oNline System(NLS)
Goal of whole Life since 25 : “Augmenting Human Intelligence”
Mouse 刚刚被发明的时候,绝大多数人都不接受
就像特斯拉在电子世界的默默无闻的创始人一样,Doug Engelbart是现代计算机世界的一个默默无闻的开创者
Mother of All Demo (1968)
他的目的: Augmenting Human Intellect
为谁设计之争,秘书 or 知识工作者?
Bret Victor:

如果你想要通过现有的系统来弄懂Engelbart的设计,那么你就丢掉了整个重点,因为现在的系统不能体现他的目的。他实际上很讨厌现有的系统。
如果你想要了解他的设计,你需要忘记你知道的关于计算机的所有知识,忘记计算机是什么,将自己置身于1962年,去读他的关于NLS的论文。

最不重要的问题是,“他做了什么”,这样问,你将自己置身于一个敬仰他的位置,敬畏他的成就,像英雄一样崇拜他。但是崇拜对任何人都没有用。
重要的是问题是 “他想要创造一个什么样的世界?” 问这个问题,你将自己置身于创造那个世界的位置。
他的构想远远超过 Tim Berns Lee 所想的
他的Demo 远远超过甚至当今可以在网络上做的事情

我们为什么做不到呢?
因为建立现代互联网的那些人不知道Engelbart, 没有花功夫去想这样的事
去世 2013 July 2
New York Times: "Computer Visionary Who Invented the Mouse"
Xerox PARC
由Alan Kay 和早期Engelbart的合作者创立
Mission: “The Architecture of Information”
发明了 “GUI”, 现代PC的先驱
幕后动机
Interface from (1981)
桌面界面30 多年没有多少进化!有的只是
更多eye candy !
Ted Nelson
Crazy
Genius
Visionary
Dissenter
Computer Lib 1974
发明了”Hypertex和Hypermedia (1965)
著书“Computer Lib””Dream Machines”
Possiplex 自传 2011
Project Xanadu
Quotes
“The World Wide Web was precisely what we were trying to PREVENT— ever-breaking links, links going outward only, quotes you can't follow to their origins, no version management, no rights management.”
Tim Berners-Lee: “Ted Nelson, a professional visionary…”, Ted Nelson “No one has ever paid me to be a visionary”
Software is too important to human life to allow the decisions be made with purely technical view.
The reason video game is so much better than office software is People who create video games love to play video games, but people who design software don’t give a shit.
What He think of the current web ?
I DON'T BUY IN

The Web isn't hypertext, it's DECORATED DIRECTORIES!

What we have instead is the vacuous victory of typesetters over authors, and the most trivial form of hypertext that could have been imagined.
There is an alternative.

Markup must not be embedded. Hierarchies and files must not be part of the mental structure of documents. Links must go both ways. All these fundamental errors of the Web must be repaired. But the geeks have tried to lock the door behind them to make nothing else possible.
We fight on.

排字工人对作家的胜利

就像早期的电影制作一样,早期的电影制作是交给摄像师的,因为他们懂怎么用机器。现在的很多网页或者软件设计都是交给了会用编程语言的人。

Two way hyperlink

http://www.yasiv.com/
Tim Berners-Lee
Invented World Wide Web in 1989
Web 的其他构想
Browser更像一个系统的核心,而不是系统的一个app
任何人可以编辑,添加或者删除链接
双向的链接
思维模式的转变
Paradigm Shift

1436
Gutenberg
Printing Press
1500
First Modern Book
Title page
Use of different typefaces
更低成本的做僧侣做的事情
1687
牛顿
自然哲学的数学原理
1888
Motion picture camera
Invented by Louis Le Prince
1941
公民凯恩
奥逊·威尔斯
Orson Welles at age 26
Innovations
Cinematography
Storytelling
Special Effects
Makeup
Soundtrack
Music
ignorance … sheer ignorance. There is no confidence to equal it. It’s only when you know something about a profession that you are timid or careful.
- Orson Welles
Ignorance
Vannevar Bush
Essay "As We May Think"
1945
1945
Mother of All Demo
1968
Xerox PARC
1981
Apple Hypercard
1987
World Wide Web
1989
?
IQ?

Outlook?

Knowledge?

Book Paradigm
Book is the way you read and study?
NO !!! That is the artifact that they called printing and such produce things that help you do that.

We have got brand new artifacts now, so let’s CHANG our Paradigm!

Don’t expect Wikipedia to get better.
It is Mimicking Paper

Wikipedia

古典建筑到现代建筑的思维转变,勒•柯布西耶, 密斯•凡•德罗, 格罗比乌斯,赖特

建筑的Paradigm
Top Ten Reasons for Change Resistance
http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html

Horseless Carriage

Human Beings resist to change.
Kuhn: “Awareness is prerequisite to all acceptable changes of theory”

Paradigm Change is Hard

"The most dangerous thought you can have as a creative person is to think you know what you're doing." - Alan Kay
We already know what computer program is

http://worrydream.com/dbx/

http://youtu.be/495nCzxM9PI

我们现在完全看不到 100 年之后,最重要的东西是什么

http://worrydream.com/MediaForThinkingTheUnthinkable/note.html

Bret Victor

“正如有的气味,狗可以闻的到,而我们不可以;有的声音,狗可以听到而我们不可以;有的光我们也看不到,有的味道我们也不能识别一样; 那么为什么以我们大脑现组成的状况来看, ‘也许有些想法,我们想不到’这样的推断会让你感到惊奇呢?“

http://worrydream.com/MediaForThinkingTheUnthinkable/

我们好像陷入了对现有事物的认识中,使我们只能看到那些导致现状的过去。很难看到其他的可能性。也就意味着,我们对未来的认知很难突破于对现有状况的小步改进。
“we seem to be trapped in a single conception of the present and that makes is hard for us to see it in any terms except the terms that led up to the present that we are in. That means it is hard to conceive the future that doesn’t incremental on the present.”
800 years

知识的问题是,有时候获得的知识是好的知识,有时候获得的知识是不好的。所以知识是双刃剑。 让我们真正进步的是Outlook
媒介的变化能促使Paradigm shift, 从地心说,到日心说,从牛顿力学到量子力学,这些运动最终改变了人们的世界观
古腾堡的印刷术发明,让书本变得更加容易得到,便宜,小巧。让广大群众能接触到书。人们的思想就慢慢从被宗教的统治中解放出来
"It's good to learn how to do something. It's better to learn many ways of doing something. But it's best to learn all these ways as suggestions or hints. Not truth.

Learn tools, and use tools, but don't accept tools. Always distrust them; always be alert for alternative ways of thinking." - Bret Victor
The Future of Programming

Sketch Pad
1962
过去
现在
The Structure of Scientific Revolution 科学革命的结构 By Thomas S.Kuhn
科学范畴里,一种基本理上从根本假设的改变
People have shifted their perceptions, understanding of the world and ways of interacting with the world and each other in relation to new technologies and media.

If one sees an existing paradigm as a coordinate space, a finite area, then a radical new idea may be perceived as a paradigm threat, and the distance between the old and the new one termed 'the paradigm gap'."

WYSIWYG – Paper simulation paradigm.
800 years
The GUI we until today did not evolve much, considering what would be possible.

Its paradigms like the desktop metaphor, drop-down menus, overlapping windows etc. still are the same.
Icons have same size

层级结构的文件

All of these are present conventions
Link: The Graphical User Interface, Time for a Paradigm Shift?
http://www.sensomatic.com/chz/gui/history.html
1941
Alan Kay
未来
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