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Tenses in English [EFL - ESL]

A presentation to explain some grammatical tenses (Present simple,present Continuous, ...)
by

Iván Matellanes Fresnadillo

on 15 September 2014

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Transcript of Tenses in English [EFL - ESL]

The tenses in English
Past tenses
Present tenses
Future tenses
Now
Past perfect
Past Simple
Past Continous
Present Perfect
Present Simple
Present Continuous

Future
Now
Present Simple
Present Continuous
I am going
I go
Present Simple
FORM (Affirmative):
I go
You go
He/She/It
goes
We go
You go
They go
FORM (negative):
I do not go
You do not go
He/She/It
does
not go
We do not go
You do not go
They do not go
FORM (Interrogative):
Do I go ... ?
Do you go ...?
Does
he/she/it go ...?
Do we go ...?
Do you go ...?
Do they go ...?
Subject + BASE Form
Subj + Auxiliaty + NOT + Base form
Auxiliaty + Subject + Base form
Now
Norms (In 3rd person singular -
He goes
-):
Verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person:
g
o
– goes; cat
ch
– catches; wa
sh
– washes; ki
ss
– kisses; fi
x
– fixes; buz
z
– buzzes
Verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES:

marr
y
– marries; stud
y
– studies; carr
y
– carries; worr
y
– worries
NOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S:
pl
ay
– plays; s
ay
– says
USES of the
Present Simple:
a. To talk about habits in the present.
I
always
talk to my mother on Sunday.
He
never
eats vegetables.
I
sometimes
do my home work
Adverbs of Frequency:
Always
(siempre)
,
Everyday
(cada día)
,
Usually
(normalmente)
,
Often
(a menudo)
,
Sometimes
(a veces)
,
Rarely
(raramente)
,
Hardly ever
(casi nunca)
,
Never
(nunca).
(+) More
Frequent
(-) Less
Frequent
b. To talk about general or scientific facts.
He does not [doesn't] eat vegetables.
She works in a hospital.
Elephants live in Africa.
Present Continuous
Now
FORM (Affirmative):
I am going
You are going
He/She/It

is going
We are going
You are going
They are going
FORM (negative):
I am not going
You are not going
He/She/It is not going
We are not going
You are not going
They are not going
FORM (Interrogative):
Am I going ... ?
Are you going ...?
Is he/she/it going ...?
Are we going ...?
Are you going ...?
Are they going ...?
Subject + TO BE + Base -ing
Subj + TO BE + NOT + Base -ing
TO BE + Subject + Base -ing
Norms (Formation of -ing verbs -
go
ing
-):
BASIC rule: Base form + -ING
Work - work
ing
; play - play
ing
; see - see
ing
...

[CVC] - If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant double the last letter:

s
top
- sto
pp
ing;
run
- ru
nn
ing; be
gin
- begi
nn
ing ...
[-ie > -y] - If the base verb ends in -ie, change it to -y:
l
ie
- l
y
ing; d
ie
- d
y
ing.
[silent -e > 0] - If the base verb ends in a silent -e, you omit the -e:
com
e
- coming
.
[-l > -ll] - If the base form ends in -l, you double it:
trave
l
- trave
ll
ing
.
USES of the Present Continuous
a.1. To talk about that is happening now.
I am studying
now.
He is eating
at the moment.
a.2. To talk
about something that is happening in the present, but not at the moment of speaking.
She's
currently
looking for a job.
Are you working?
[not now, but in the present]
A. to express the present time
Time references:
Now
(ahora)
,
At the moment
(En este momento)
,
Right now
(ahora mismo)
,
Currently
(actualmente).
Forms:
Spelling:
Forms:
Spelling:
Almost
now

Present Perfect
Now
Present Perfect
FORM (Affirmative):
I have gone
You have gone
He/She/It
has
gone
We have gone
You have gone
They have gone
Subject + HAVE (has) + Past Participle
FORM (negative):
I have not gone
You have not gone
He/She/It
has
not gone
We have not gone
You have not gone
They have not gone
Subject + HAVE (has) + not + Past Participle
HAVE (has) + Subject + Past Participle ?
FORM (interrogative):
Have I gone ?
Have you gone ?
Has
he/She/It

gone?
Have we gone ?
Have you gone ?
Have they gone ?
USES of the Present Perfect
a.1. To talk about actions that started in the past and continue up to the present.
I have lived in NY
for
5 years (I'm still living there).
I lived in NY
for
5 years (from 2005 to 2010)
.
a.2. Past actions whose effec
ts are visible at the present moment.
I have worked in many pubs
since
2002
(I'm not working now, but I'm in a job interview).
a.3. Actions that have happened in a recent past
.
I have
just
seen Marie (5 minutes ago).
A. to express past actions related to the present.
Time references:
... Ever, never ...
(alguna vez, nunca)
,
... Already ...
(ya)
,
... Yet
(aún)
,
... Just ...
(acabo de ...),
... Reciently ...
(recientemente)
,
... for 5 years
(5 años [periodo de tiempo])
,
... since 1998
(desde 1998 [fecha]).
Yesterday
Now
Past Simple
Past Continuous
I was going
I went
Past Simple
FORM (Affirmative):
I went
You went
He/She/It went
We went
You went
They went
FORM (negative):
I
did
not go
You
did
not go
He/She/It
did
not go
We
did
not go
You
did
not go
They
did
not go
FORM (Interrogative):
Did
I go ... ?
Did
you go ...?
Did
he/she/it go ...?
Did
we go ...?
Did
you go ...?
Did
they go ...?
Subject + BASE Form
Subj + Auxiliaty + NOT + Base form
Auxiliaty + Subject + Base form
Now
Norms (Regular past forms in -ed -
He played
-). Exceptions:
Verbs that end in silent -e, they just add -d :
clos
e
> clos
ed
; di
e
> di
ed
; phon
e
> phon
ed
.
Verbs that end in a consonant + -y, we remove the -y and add -ied:

ma
rry
> marr
ied
; stu
dy
> stud
ied
; ca
rry
> carr
ied

For verbs that end in a vowel + -y, we just add -ed:
pl
ay
>
play
ed.
Verbs that end in -C`V'C (stressed final vowel), they doble the final consonant:
s
top
> sto
pp
ed;
ban
> ba
nn
ed.
Except for verbs that do not end in a stressed vowel (-CVC):
o
pen > open
ed
; l
i
sten > listen
ed
.
USES of the
Past Simple:
a. Consecutive actions in the past.
I
went
to the cinema and I
saw
Maria there. She
was
with her new boyfriend.
Adverbs used with simple past:
When
(cuando)
,
yesterday
(ayer)
,
in 2004
(en 2004)
,
2 years ago
(hace 2 años)
,
last week
(la semana pasada)
,
for 5 months
(5 meses).
b. An action that happened (and sometimes interrupted)
when
another action was in progress.
He
was cooking

when
his mother
phoned
.
Past Continuous
Now
FORM (Affirmative):
I was going
You were going
He/She/It

was going
We were going
You were going
They were going
FORM (negative):
I was not going
You were not going
He/She/It was not going
We were not going
You were not going
They were not going
FORM (Interrogative):
Was I going ... ?
Were you going ...?
Was he/she/it going ...?
Were we going ...?
Were you going ...?
Were they going ...?
Subject + TO BE + Base -ing
Subj + TO BE + NOT + Base -ing
TO BE + Subject + Base -ing
Norms (Formation of -ing verbs -
go
ing
-):
BASIC rule: Base form + -ING
Work - work
ing
; play - play
ing
; see - see
ing
...
[CV'C] - If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant double the last letter:

s
top
- sto
pp
ing;
run
- ru
nn
ing; be
gin
- begi
nn
ing ...
[-ie > -y] - If the base verb ends in -ie, change it to -y:
l
ie
- l
y
ing; d
ie
- d
y
ing.
[silent -e > 0] - If the base verb ends in a silent -e, you omit the -e:
com
e
- coming
.
[-l > -ll] - If the base form ends in -l, you double it:
trave
l
- trave
ll
ing
.
USES of the Past Continuous
a.1. The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment.
Yesterday, I
was watching
TV at 8pm.
(The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm).
When we use the past continuous tense, our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about:
I
was working
at 10pm last night.

a.2. To express an action in progress that is interrupted by another action (usually expressed in the simple past):
While
I
was watching
TV, my nephew
phoned
.

a.3. To express 2 actions that were happening at the same time:
While
I
was cooking
, she
was watching
TV.
Time references:
While / As
(mientras)
,
At 3 o'clock
(a las 3)
,
all day
(todo el dia).
Forms:
Spelling:
Forms:
Spelling:
Day before yesterday
Past Perfect
Now
Past Perfect
FORM (Affirmative):
I had gone
You had gone
He/She/It

had

gone
We had gone
You had gone
They had gone
Subject + HAD + Past Participle
FORM (negative):
I had not gone
You had not gone
He/She/It had

not gone
We had not gone
You had not gone
They had not gone
Subject + HAD + not + Past Participle
HAD + Subject + Past Participle ?
FORM (interrogative):
Had I gone ?
Had you gone ?
Had

he/She/It

gone?
Had we gone ?
Had you gone ?
Had they gone ?
USES of the Past Perfect
To talk about an action that happened before another action in the past. The action expressed in the past perfect is further in the past:
I
went
to see the movie that we
had discussed
in class.
To express past actions related to other past actions.
Time references:
By the time
(Para cuando)
,
After
(Tras, después).
Tomorrow
Now
Future Simple
I will go
I'm going to go
Future Simple
Subject + will + BASE Form
I will go
You will go
He/She/It will

go
We will go
You will go
They will go
FORM (Affirmative):
FORM (negative):
FORM (Interrogative):
Now
Will
a. Decisions.
Present Continuous
Now
FORM (Affirmative):
I am going
You are going
He/She/It

is going
We are going
You are going
They are going
FORM (negative):
I am not going
You are not going
He/She/It is not going
We are not going
You are not going
They are not going
FORM (Interrogative):
Am I going ... ?
Are you going ...?
Is he/she/it going ...?
Are we going ...?
Are you going ...?
Are they going ...?
Subject + TO BE + Base -ing
Subj + TO BE + NOT + Base -ing
TO BE + Subject + Base -ing
Norms (Formation of -ing verbs -
go
ing
-):
BASIC rule: Base form + -ING
Work - work
ing
; play - play
ing
; see - see
ing
...

[CVC] - If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant double the last letter:

s
top
- sto
pp
ing;
run
- ru
nn
ing; be
gin
- begi
nn
ing ...
[-ie > -y] - If the base verb ends in -ie, change it to -y:
l
ie
- l
y
ing; d
ie
- d
y
ing.
[silent -e > 0] - If the base verb ends in a silent -e, you omit the -e:
com
e
- coming
.
[-l > -ll] - If the base form ends in -l, you double it:
trave
l
- trave
ll
ing
.
USES of the Present Continuous
a.1. To talk about that is happening now.
I am studying
now.
He is eating
at the moment.
a.2. To talk
about something that is happening in the present, but not at the moment of speaking.
She's
currently
looking for a job.
Are you working?
[not now, but in the present]
A. to express the present time
Time references:
Now
(ahora)
,
At the moment
(En este momento)
,
Right now
(ahora mismo)
,
Currently
(actualmente).
Forms:
Forms:
Spelling:
To talk about a specific fact in the past:
NOW
was cooking
phoned
To talk about an action in the past (with emphasis to the progress):
now
was cooking
was watching TV
Simple Past
now
We
had discussed
in class
on March, 3rd
We
went
to see a movie
on March, 13th
By the time
the police
arrived
, the two men
had disappeared
.
now
The 2 men
had disappeared
at 10:03
The police
arrived
at 10:07
Subject + BE going to + BASE Form
I am going to go
You are going to go
He/She/It is going to

go
We are going to go
You are going to go
They are going to go
Subject + will not (won't) + BASE Form
I will not go
You will not go
He/She/It will

not

go
We won't go
You won't go
They won't go
Subject + BE not going to + BASE Form
I am not going to go
You are not going to go
He/She/It is not going to

go
We are not going to go
You are not going to go
They are not going to go
Will + Subject + BASE Form
Will I go?
Will you go?
Will He/She/It go?
Will we go?
Will you go?
Will they go?
BE + Subject + going to + BASE Form
Am I going to go?
Are you going to go?
Is He/She/It going to

go?
Are we going to go?
Are you going to go?
Are they going to go?
BE going to
b. Predictions.
c. Future facts.
d. Promises & offers.
Vs.
When
do we take a decision?
What
data
do we use to make a prediction?
Condition
al sentences.
was watching
phoned
now
Full transcript