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Arts of the Pacific and of the Americas

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Srujan Esanakarra

on 7 August 2014

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Transcript of Arts of the Pacific and of the Americas

Arts of the Pacific and of the Americas
Arts of the Pacific
Australia was settled by ancestors of the peoples today known as
Aborigines
.
They arrived by sea from Southeast Asia as early as 50,000 years go.
Oldest form of Pacific art are the earliest rock engravings of
Aborigines
dating from 30,000 B. C. E
Meanings behind these images are not known. However recent
Aborigines
art is connected with the religious beliefs known as
Dreamtime
or the Dreaming.
Dreamtime
includes the distant past, present .
With age a person draws closer to the realm of ancestors, and at death the spirit is reabsorbed into the Dreaming.
Often the soul is said to be carried by a current of water according to
Lipundja's Djalambu.
Arts of Mesoamerica
The leaves on their costume represents the nature and the natural order of things.
Stone figures of Easter Island are another well known works of the Pacific.
Scholars believe that it was carved as memorials to dead rulers or other important ancestors.
Similar architectural forms are given to the men's meeting houses of the Maori people of New Zealand.
House is understood to be the body of the sky father.
The average height is about 36ft and each one weighs tens of tons.
Many of the figures were destroyed due to warfare between the islanders.
Polynesian people believed that feathers were scared to the gods.
Rulers and high ranking members of the society wore feathers with geometric designs and brilliant colors.
It embodies the ideas about the order of society,the respective roles of men and women, the continuing presence of ancestors, and the protective power of the gods.

Two circular eyes are on the coffin represents the alert and otherworldly gaze of an ancestor looking into this world from Dreamtime.
Tolai people of New Britain has the similar concept. It is another island of Melanesia.
Masks and masquerades are important.
Females spirits are known as "tubuan". They are immortal.
Male spirits are known as "duk duk". They punish lawbreakers. Reborn every year from the female spirits.
Catfish and diver birds are painted on their coffins.
In the center of Djalambu is a log coffin.
A diver bird and a long neck tortoise appear near the base of the coffin- catfish and seven bullroares accompany it.
The linear patterns of hatching and cross-hatching are characteristic of much Aboriginal art.
By: Sona Janson, Venkata Esanakarra, and Alfredo Carrera
Arts of Central, South, and North America
Machu Picchu
The Incan Marvel
Textiles - some of the finest in South America
Sculptures - Excellence with silver and gold
Stonework - 20,000 miles of stone-paved roads
Tumbaga
Made by artists of the Tairona culture
An alloy of gold and copper
Made using the lost-wax technique
Knowledge of extracting and working with gold first developed to the south, in Peru
However, it was mastered near the Cordillera Oriental - Central American cultural region
Many arts of North America were arts of daily life
First culture group - "Mound Builders"
The Serpent Mound in Ohio is still visible
Stone Pipes
Example of art of daily life
Stone pipes were invented in North America
Mesa Verde
Masks
Anasazi built communal dwelling sites
This architecture is so protective, it is believed to have been designed by one person
Consists of 200 rooms, organized in apartment-style housing
Additionally, there are 23
kivas
- "large, round chambers, mostly underground and originally roofed, used for religious and other ceremonial purposes"
Mimbres
The Mogollan culture developed Mimbres, a type of ceramic vessel
Recovered mimbres seem to be shattered or "ritually 'killed'"
Parallels with the human body which acts as a "vessel for the soul." When the vessel is broken, the soul departs.
tamtam kushokta
Kachina - supernatural beings
Enter into the community at auspicious and impotant times to bring blessings
Kachina dolls were believed to possess some of the power of the spirit they represented
Kwakiutl
Crooked Beak
"One of the four mythical cannibal birds who live at the north end of the world and eat human flesh"
Part of a yearly ritual in which young men of noble families are kidnapped and transformed into cannibals
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
From Living With Art by Mark Getlein
*The most accepted theory is that people crossed over a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska and pushed sothward seeking a better place to live.
*By 3000 BCE there were developed cultures in 3 important centers.
1. The northwest coast of America
2 The fertile coastal lowlands of Mesoamerica
3 The pacific coast of South America.
*The early art from these people is called "Pre-Columbian"
"Mesoamerica"
It is a region that extends from the north of the valley of Mexico (present day is Mexico city) trough Honduras.
*There were 3 civilizations in this region.
1. The Olmecs
2. The Mayas
3. The Aztecs
*The civilizations from these region shared interest such as the cultivation of corn, the building of pyramids, a 260 day ritual calendar, an important ritual ball game, and a belief in the role of human blood to sustain the gods and the universe.
Tattoo patterns were on the men and women of Maori.
Older men had more tattoos on them since they had been granted with enough time, prestige,and wealth.
Art was considered sacred by the Marquesans. It was performed ritually by a specialist known as tukuka.
Designs were created using a bone tool.
Olmecs
*The olmec civilization flourished between 1500 and 300 BC and it is called the mother culture.
*A few centuries later the city of Teotihuacan rose to prominence and between 350 and 560 it was one of the largest cities of the world.
*The hearth of the city held a complex of pyramids along the Avenue of the death
*The most important pyramids are the Pyramid of the sun and the Temple of the Feathered Serpent.
Source: Mark Getlein's Living With Art
Music: bit.ly/1nuv17u

The Maya
The Maya civilization rose in the southeastern portion of Mesoamerica in the Yucatan Peninsula and Guatemala.
*The Mayan culture began to form around 1000 BC under the influence of the Olmces. They flourished between 250- 900 A.D.
*They were still in existence when the spanish arrived in the 16th century
*The most importan accomplishments of Mayas are astronomy, biology and mathematical concept of zero
The Aztecs
They were the last empire to rise before the arrival of the spanish.
They migrated to the valley of mexico in the 13th century.
They built their capital called Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake tezcoco.
There is hardly anything left of the site. Spanish conquerors destroyed the pyramids and melt down the jewelery to get gold and silver. The books were burned. And many of the precoius art were sent to europe.
This kind of mask was made by mixtec artists for the Aztecs in the use of dancing and singing rituals. Aztecs colleected jade masks from the olmecs.
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