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Ancient River Valley Civilizations
Transcript of Ancient River Valley Civilizations
China, Egypt, Indus River,
and Mesopotamia Vinh Chu
Jennifer Tong Geographical
Determinant Organized Government Economy Art, Archicture and Technology Writing Religion Bibliography Mesopotamia Sumer: city states
- priest kings: chief servants of gods
Babylonian: kings have supreme legislative and jurisdictional authority
- Hummarabis Code
Assyria: kings had absolute power
- society remained feudal Egypt Theocracy: rule on behalf of gods
no one would remove pharaohs because citizens thought they would upset the gods
pharaohs had limitless power over people
Advisors and ministers of pharaohs were mostly priests Indus Valley Leaders were Priest- kings
kings were called raja
Priests had more power than kings
Priests had the closes connection to the gods.
laws came from religious beliefs China Ruled by kings in dynasties
kings acted like dictators
limitless power over everything
Shang Dynasty: city- states
Zhou Dynasty: local lords govern own land Compare and Contrast Compare:
ruled by kings or priests
holds majority of power in civilizations Contrast:
some civilizations were ruled on behalf of gods
some of the kings abused their powers and were harsh Ex) China and Assyria Mesopotamia Economy based on agriculture
Traded and sold livestocks
Trade with Greece, India, and Africa to gain other goods
Barter to buy things Egypt Economy based on trading and farming
Traded livestocks and crops
Instead of paying for items, traded items (barter)
crafts produced in small shops Indus Valley agricultural and trade based ecnomy
domesticated animals for trade
hunted animals for parts to trade
traded gold, silver and cloth with other countries China Economy based on fishing, farming, and trading
large scaled irrigation works made farming more productive
Copper coins made trade easier
Merchants benefitted from new roads and canals
traded silk (Silk Road) Compare and Contrast Compare
economy mostly based on agriculture
traded to gain items and make money
China made the first early form of money while others traded items
In Egypt, most of the crops went to the government as taxes. "Ancient Chinese Economy." Ancient Chinese Economy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17
"Ancient Civilizations History Web Site." Form of Government in
Mesopotamia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
"Ancient Egyptian Government." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web.
17 Jan. 2013.
"Eternal Egypt." Eternal Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013
"Facts and Details." MESOPOTAMIAN ECONOMICS, MONEY, LABOR. N.p., n.d.
Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
"Interesting Facts & Information: Tourism, Travel, Culture, Language,
Business, People. Â» Blog Archive Â» Ancient China Government." Business People RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
“Mesopotamia for Kids - Government." Mesopotamia for Kids - Government.
N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
"Period20910 - Government of Indus River Valley Civ." Period20910 -
Government of Indus River Valley Civ. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor., Anthony Esler, and Burton F. Beers. Prentice Hall
World History: Connections to Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. Print. Mesopotamia Made art from natural resources (ex: stones)
Made ziggurats (distinctive temples)
Developed arch and column, as well as 60-second minute
Used mainly bricks of mud for construction Egypt Developed calendar and geometry
Arts included paintings, statues, and carvings
Built pyramids and temples (the Great Sphinx)
Had water clocks and sundials Indus River Buildings included the Great Bath, Granaries, and the Assembly Hall
First civilization to develop precise measurements
Boats and carts used for trade and travel
Large irrigation systems
Used clay for art China Calligraphy became an elegant art form
Developed system of writing numbers
Architecture used mainly timberwork
Technically advanced in iron-making
Invented silk and acupuncture
Made first books under Zhou Compare and Contrast Compare:
Similar/common forms of art (statues, etc.)
All have famous buildings and important inventions
Styles of buildings differ due to geography and culture
All different contributions to technology and knowledge today. Mesopotamia First writing appeared roughly 3500 BCE
Invented earliest known form of writing
Cuneiform: wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets
Used to record grain harvests, myths, and more Egypt First writing appeared about 3400 BCE
Used hieroglyphics, a form of picture writing
Made paper-like material from papyrus
Later added ideograms (pictures symbolizing ideas and actions) Indus River May have begun in temples
Earliest writing made of pictographs
Symbols added later
People specially trained for writing were called scribes
Still indecipherable to this day China System used both pictographs and ideographs
Later changed to characters made of many strokes
Each character of written Chinese represent a different word
Scholars brought in calligraphy Compare and Contrast Compare:
All originated from/based on pictographs
Largely used by temple priests and scribes
Different methods of writing (tablets and papyrus)
Different purposes (for harvesting records or religious or educational uses) Mesopotamia In between the Tigris and Euraphates rivers, Mesopotamia prospers thank to the dark, rich river soil and water.
This land attracts many people because of its fertile soil, rivers, and sea gulf for trading.
People here have to control the river by building small channel, dikes, and irragation ditches to prevent floods and support dry seasons. Egypt Surrounded by the barren desert, Egypt solely survived because of the Nile River.
By using the "black land," approximately 10 miles wide from the Nile, ancient Egyptian grows flax and wheat.
Egyptians awaits the annual flood of the Nile for its wondrous water and rich nutrients for the soils, but they also build dikes and reservoirs, and irrigation ditches to control flooding and dry seasons. Indus River Surrouned by mountain ranges and an ocean, Indian Ocean, Indus river civilization was protected from the world for a time.
It is divided into three area: the fertile watered plain, the dry plateau, and the coastal plains.
Close to the sea, the Indus civilization receives seasonal wind called monsoon that brings life to the land, yet it may flood the area. China Desert to the north, mountains to the west, jungle to the south, and ocean to the east entrap China, isolating it for a time.
Using the Huang He river as a trading route and for irrigation, the Chinese was able to farm and prospers in their isolated land.
Abundant in Loess, fine windblown yellow soil, the chinese uses this fertile soil to farm. Compare and Contrast Compare:
All of the civilizations depend on one or more rivers.
All of the civilizations face problems, such as floods and dry seasons.
All of the civilizations learned to control their river(s) through means such as dikes, irrigation channels, and reservoirs. Contrast:
Some civilizations, such as Indus River and China, have fertile land away from rivers.
Some civilizations, such as Mesopotamia and Egypt, faces problems with hot dry deserts.
While certain civilizations depend on a single river, others have many rivers to their advantage. Mesopotamia There are many religions within Mesopotamia because of its diversity. But all of them, similarly, were polytheistic.
People believed in many gods and believed that these gods are responsible for for everything in their lives.
The ancient people live to please these gods because they believe that they will be kill if the gods aren't pleased. Egypt Egyptians are polytheistic , believing in many gods, each with their own role in the world.
Egyptian believed in afterlife, a life after death.
A ritual Egyptians used is mummification, a process to preserve the body of the dead. Indus River The people worshiped gods and goddesses of natural forces.
They believe that the gods control their life, so they pray, offer food and drinks, and perform rituals to appease the god.
They also spent times seeking spiritual truth and believe that gods resided in everything.
Hinduism and Buddhism was born here. China Many religion derive from China: Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism.
Confucianism was a teaching created by Confucius to help bring harmony and order.
Legalism was a belief that uses strength and fear to rule over people.
Daoism from Laozi teaches people to become one with nature and find "the way" of the universe.
Buddhism reaches China from India, and blended into the Chinese many religions and teachings. It became one of the most important one there. Compare and Contrast Compare:
All of the civilization were polytheistic.
They all believed that the gods control their life, and they try to appease them. Contrast:
Some of the religions from the civilizations are still famously believed in today, such as Buddhism and Hinduis.
Some civilizations sacrifice human body to please the gods.