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Marine Mammals - Faroe Island Whaling Prezi
Transcript of Marine Mammals - Faroe Island Whaling Prezi
Jordan Langille and Brittany Jenkins Faroe Island Long-finned Pilot Whaling and a Possible Whale Watching Alternative March 27, 2013 Thank you!
Questions? General Biology of Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas): Faroe Island Grindadráp: Denmark's proposed whale watching alternative to whaling: Iceland and Norway switch from whaling to whale watching: Current status and evidence of whaling impacts: Evidence of impacts of whale watching: Sustainability of whaling vs. whale watching: Recommendations: - Medium sized toothed whale
- Family Delphinidae
- Sexual dimorphism between males and females
- Males 7.62 m and 2.3 tons
- Females 5.70 m and 1.3 tons
- Dark brown to black in color with a light anchor shaped pattern on the belly
- Bulbous melon and beak
- Extremely social, stable pods from 50-1000 individuals
- Strong matrilineal relationships
- Lifespan: Males (45 yrs), Females (60 yrs)
- Gestation period (14 mos), Lactation (-2 yrs)
- Prey: mainly squid, Mackerel, some smaller fish - Recognized as one of the most abundant cetaceans in the North Atlantic but on the IUCN Red List as "data deficient"
- Anti-tropical species, primarily found in cold temperatures and sub polar waters of all oceans except the North Pacific
- North Atlantic Sightings Survey (NASS); 778,000 individuals for the eastern North Atlantic, 31,000 in western North Atlantic and;
- 200,000 in the Antarctic waters
- No long-term indication of declining or increasing abundance
- Newfoundland fishery from 1947-1972
- Threats: fisheries, incidental catches, prey depletion, anthropogenic noise, climate change - 'Any commercial enterprise which provides for the public to see cetaceans in their natural habitat'
- "good" whale watching - that which provides maximum benefit to both the tourists and the target species
- 2 million participants in 1990 -> 13 million participants in 2008
- Average annual rate of growth of ~12%
- Benefits coastal peripheral communities especially socioeconomically
- Increases conservation efforts? Whaling:
- k-selected life history
- Average catches of 1000 individuals throughout history annually in the Faroe Islands (~778,000 individuals in eastern North Atlantic alone)
- IWC regulations do not cover small cetaceans
- Records dating back to 1298
- Highly regulated by sheriffs and community members Whale Watching:
- Highly fragmented regulatory framework for whale watching
- Difficult-to-control marine environment
- Those frameworks that do exist are poorly or incompletely enforced
- Introduction of more vessels -> more pollution, degradation of marine habitat Short Clip of Faroe Island Grindadráp: - Important cultural tradition dating back to the year 1298
- Detailed records of the hunt since 1584
- Average annual catch is 900-1000 long-finned pilot whales
- The hunt occurs three or four times a year, for non-commercial purposes, and is discontinued when sufficient blubber and meat for local needs has been harvested
Process of Grindadráp:
- Hunters surround a pod of long-finned pilot whales with their boats & herd them to shore
- Whales are dragged up the beach by inserting blunt metal hooks tied to rope into whale blowholes
- Major blood vessels are cut with a grindaknivur
- The whale meat is divided up amongst the hunters and the local residents to serve as sustenance Iceland:
- After IWC’s moratorium Iceland began transitioning towards whale watching instead of commercial whaling
- Now has one of the best whale watching industries in the world
- Most residents see this as a successful adaptation of new activities into existing patterns of culture and economy, rather than completely transforming culture and tradition - Evidence of behavioural changes in response to whale watching activities
E.g. reduced or altered feeding activity due to presence of boat
- Increased injuries and mortality caused by ship strikes- Potential displacement of populations if boat traffic becomes high
- Potential to elevate stress levels and reduce fitness in certain cetacean species
“There is new evidence that the fitness of individual odontocetes repeatedly exposed to whale-watching vessel traffic can be compromised and that this can lead to population-level effects” (IWC 2006) - More studies should be conducted on the North Atlantic long-finned pilot whale population;
- since this population is mostly data deficient not much is known about their distribution, site fidelity, and abundance, therefore we cannot know for sure how they are being affected by grindadráp
- Use the precautionary approach when starting the whale watching activity that will be introduced by the Denmark government
- Enforce strict regulations on whale watching around Denmark and possibly neighboring countries will follow
- Reduce allowable whale watching area to prevent interfering with their important life history patterns References: Bloch, D. (1998). A review of marine mammals observed, caught or stranded over the last two centuries in Faroese waters. Shetland Sea Mammal Report. 15-37
Bulbeck, C. and Bowdler, S. 2008. The Faroes grindadráp or pilot whale hunt: The importance of its' traditional' status in debates with conservationists. Australian Archaeology. 67: 63-60.
Culik, B. 2010. Odontocetes. The toothed whales: “Globicephala melas”. Convention on Migratory Species. Available from http://www.cms.int/reports/small_cetaceans/data/G_melas/g_melas.htmGarrod, B. and
Einarsson, N. (2009). From good to eat to good to watch: whale watching, adaptation and change in Icelandic fishing communities. Polar Research. 28(1), 129-138
Faroese Government. (2008). Pilot whale catches in the Faroe Islands: 1900-2000. Available from http://web.archive.org/web/20080612233347/http://www.whaling.fo/numberswhalingandani.htm [accessed 03 March 2013]
Fennell, D.A. 2004. An Analysis Of Whale watching Codes Of Conduct. Ann. Tourism Res. 31(2): 334-352. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2003.12.003. Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738303001385.
International Whaling Comission. 2013. IWC59 Workshop. IWC. Available from http://iwc.int/whalewatchingworkshop
Ministry of Fisheries. 2012. Whales and whaling in the Faroe Islands. Ministry of Fisheries. Available from http://www.whaling.fo/Default.aspx?ID=6840
NAMMCO. 2005. Studies of Marine Mammals in the North Atlantic: The Long-Finned Pilot Whale. Available from http://www.nammco.no/webcronize/images/Nammco/635.pdf
Parsons, E.M. (2012). The Negative Impacts of whale watching. Journal of Marine Biology. 2012, 1-9
Ris, M. (1993). Conflicting cultural values: whale tourism in northern Norway. Arctic. 156-163
Van Ginkel, R. 2005. Killing giants of the sea: Contentious heritage and the politics of culture. J. Mediterr. Stud. 15 (1): 71-98.
Woods-Ballard, A.J., Parsons, E.C.M., Hughes, A.J., Velander, K.A., Ladle, R.J., and Warburton, C.A. 2003. The Sustainability of Whale-watching in Scotland. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 11(1): 40-55. doi:10.1080/09669580308667192. Norway:
- Openly rejected the whaling moratorium
- Continued hunting Minke whales commercially and under the pretence of hunting for ‘scientific purposes’
- Attempted to export their whale meat to Faroe Islands and Japan but market is dwindling
- Whale watching entrepreneurs have not yet succeeded in changing local attitudes towards whales since coastal; many communities still show much resistance Both Iceland and Norway are countries that have long histories of whaling for subsistence and cultural purposes since the 9th century