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Copy of American Literature Timeline

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Ivan Ballestas

on 6 July 2013

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Transcript of Copy of American Literature Timeline

American Literature Timeline
By Allyson Brown and Melissa Steller
Native American
Beginnings
around 1620

Created by various tribes like the Navajo, Iroquois, Onondaga, and Modoc.
Stories were origin myths, legends or folk tales explaining customs, events beyond people's control, religious rites, and natural landmarks.
Emphasized oral tradition; orators such as Logan and Red Jacket
Also had lyrics and narratives with poetic language
Themes were life lessons or morals and origins of their own tribes.
Characteristics
The Earth on the Turtle's Back
by the Onondaga-Northeast Woodlands Tribe
When Grizzlies Walked Upright
by the Modoc Tribe
The Navajo Origin Legend
by the Navajo Tribe
The Iroquois Constitution
by the Iroquois Tribe
Puritan
1750
Mayflower Arrival
1622
Characteristics
They first landed in Plymouth; separated from the Church of England; strict religion- believed human beings were for the Glory of God, emphasizing Bible as sole expression of God’s will; pre-destination (John Calvin); ethic of hard work and strict discipline; The Great Awakening marked decline in Puritan values and beliefs.
Typically wrote theological studies, hymns, histories, biographies, journals, and diaries.
Wrote for self-examination and spiritual insight.
No fiction or drama; regarded as sinful
Plain writing style; poetry was only used for spiritual enlightenment
1624
The General History of Virginia
by John Smith
1630
Of Plymouth Plantation
by William Bradford
1640
Bay Psalm Book
by Richard Mather
1641
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
by Jonathan Edwards
1678
To My Dear Loving Husband
by Anne Bradstreet
1684
Huswifery
by Edward Taylor
1690
New England Primer
1693
Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits
by Richard Mather
Neoclassicism/Enlightenment
1800
Characteristics
The Age of Enlightenment; writers were influenced by European styles; before and after American Revolution
Writing was mainly public writing such as newspapers, almanacs, magazines, speeches, and letters.
Revolved around politics using journalists and printers.
Less around religion and more on science and logic.
Literature started to focus on the relationship of America with Britain and the nature of government
James Otis was a speaker and pamphlet writer for colonial rights who developed the phrase “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”
Franklin used many aphorisms in his almanacs.
1732-1757
Poor Richard's Almanack
by Benjamin Franklin
1765
James Otis: "Taxation without
representation is tyranny!"
1771
The Autobiography
by Benjamin Franklin
{
1775
The Speech in the Virginia Convention
by Patrick Henry
To His Excellency General Washington
by Phillis Wheatley
{
1776
The Declaration of Independence
by Thomas Jefferson
Common Sense
by Thomas Paine
Romanticism
Romanticism Characteristics
Focused on imagination, emotion, nature, and individuality.
Shifts from personal and political to entertaining purposes.
Purely American topics were introduced such as frontier life.
Poetry included exact rhyme, when two words have identical sounds in final accented syllables, and slant rhyme, when final sounds are similar but not identical.
A parable is a story designed to convey some religious principle, moral lesson, or general truth.
Dark Romanticism Characteristics
Tone is usually morbid and dark
Focuses on dark side of human nature and flaws like greed, selfishness, hypocrisy, guilt, and fear.
Themes demonstrate what happens when we allow our selfishness to surface and dictate our actions.
Transcendentalism Characteristics
Truth lies outside the experiences of the senses
Believed intuition and the individual spirit “transcend” experience and truth can be found through the senses rather than logical reason.
Divinity is found all around in nature and in each person.
Techniques included free verse with irregular meter and line length
Transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, W.H. Channing, Margaret Fuller, and Elizabeth Peabody.
Fireside Poets: wrote practically about death and patriotism. Include the writers Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes
1819
1820
1823
1823-1841
1824
1830
{
1838
1839
1842
1845
1847
1849
1850
1854
1855
1836
1851
Dark Romanticism
(1836-1851)
1855
Transcendentalism
(1840-1855)
Rip Van Winkle
by Washington Irving
Legend of Sleepy Hollow
by Washington Irving
Thenatopsis
by William Cullen Bryant
The Leatherstocking Tales
by James Fenimore Cooper
The Devil and Tom Walker
by Washington Irving
Old Ironsides
by Oliver Wendell Holmes
Minister's Black Veil
by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nature
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Psalm of Life
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The Fall of the House of Usher
by Edgar Allan Poe
The Raven
by Edgar Allan Poe
The First Snowfall
by James Russell Lowell
Civil Disobedience
by Henry David Thoreau
The Scarlet Letter
by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Moby-Dick
by Herman Melville
Walden
by Henry David Thoreau
Leaves of Grass
by Walt Whitman
Self-Reliance
by Ralph Waldo Emerson
1865
Civil War Literature
1852
Uncle Tom's Cabin
by Harriet Beecher Stowe
1855
My Bondage My Freedom
by Frederick Douglass
{
1861
Letter To His Son
by Robert E. Lee
Mary Chestnut's Civil War
by Mary Chestnut
An Account of the Battle of Bull Run
by Stonewall Jackson
1863
The Gettysburg Address
by Abraham Lincoln
1865
An Account of an Experience of Discrimination
by Sojourner Truth
Characteristics
Included speeches, African American spirituals, letters, and personal accounts during the Civil War
Presented various perspectives of the Civil War
1918
Realism
Hello
Realism Characteristics
Stressed the actual instead of the imaginary.
Wrote truthfully and objectively about ordinary characters in ordinary situations.
Rejected heroic, adventurous, unusual, or unfamiliar subjects unlike Romanticism.
Characters are more important than the plot; usually both good and evil, complex.
Traced the effects of heredity and environment on people helpless to change their situations.
Common themes were the Civil War and slavery.
Incorporated psychological debates including nature versus nurture.
No huge climax; classic plot structure.
Frame narrative: story within a story
Local color: everything in the setting points to a specific time and place, i.e. dialects
Naturalism Characteristics
Addresses physical, psychological, and emotional extremes.
Hereditary defines characters.
Saw people as victims of unchangeable natural laws
Setting is almost a main character
Common themes are survival of the fittest and life is unforgiving
Focuses on animal-like and negative, but common, traits for all humans.
Regionalism Characteristics
Wrote mainly about specific geographical areas.
Addresses the distinct culture of an area, including speech, customs, and history.
Local-color writing is also emphasized.
Usually included Southern writers of the 1920’s
Often goes beyond cultural stereotypes to write more culturally in depth about regions
{
1884
1894
1895
1899
1876
}
1890
1903
1913
The Outcasts of Poker Flat
by Bret Harte
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
by Mark Twain
"The Art of Fiction"
by Henry James
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
by Mark Twain
"The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
by Ambrose Bierce
The Story of an Hour
by Kate Chopin
War is Kind
by Stephen Crane
The Awakening
by Kate Chopin
Call of the Wild
by Jack London
To Build A Fire
by Jack London
Oh, Pioneers!
by Willa Cather
My Antonia
by Willa Cather
Modernism
{
1915
The Love Song of Jay Alfred Prufrock
by T.S. Elliot
1916
The Great Figure
by William Carlos Williams
1946
{
1918
{
1920
1921
1922
{
{
1923
1925
1926
1928
1929
{
1930
{
1935
1936
{
1937
1939
1940
{
1941
1942
The Red Badge of Courage
by Stephen Crane
1908
Naturalism
1869
1918
Regionalism
In a Station of the Metro
by Ezra Pound
Imagist Poems
(1909-1940)
Harlem Renaissance
(1919-1942)
Grass
by Carl Sandburg
Were the Cross is Made
by Eugene O'Niell
Start of the
Jazz Age
The Tropics in New York
by Claude McKay
Wind and Silver
by Amy Lowell
Winter Dreams
by F. Scott Fitzgerald
Heat
by H.D.
The Waste Land
by T.S. Elliot
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
by Robert Frost
The Red Wheelbarrow
by William Carlos Williams
November Cotton Flower
by Jean Toomer
The Great Gatsby
by F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
by Langston Hughes
Acquainted With the Night
by Robert Frost
The End of the
Jazz Age
The Sound and the Fury
by William Faulkner
A Farewell to Arms
by Ernest Hemingway
The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
by Katherine Anne Porter
Tortilla Flat
by John Steinbeck
Any Human to Another
by Countee Cullen
Absalom, Absalom!
by William Faulkner
Of Mice and Men
by John Steinbeck
Their Eyes Were Watching God
by Zora Neale Hurston
Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
anyone lived in a pretty how town
by E.E. Cummings
A Worn Path
by Eudora Welty
The Gift Outright
by Robert Frost
Dust Tracks on a Road
by Zora Neale Hurston
Modernism Characteristics
Emphasizes world experimentation in style and form
Reflects the fragmentation and disillusionment in society and a loss of faith in the American Dream due to World War I and the following Great Depression
Interests in the inner-workings of the human mind led to stream of consciousness writing
Stream of consciousness: attempts to imitate natural flow of characters’ thoughts as they experience them.
Influenced also by the Jazz Age (1920-1929) and the prosperous 1920’s.
Imagism Characteristics
Rebelled against sentimentality of the 19th Century
Used clear expression, concrete images, and the language of everyday speech
Created new rhythms and gave complete freedom to subject choice
Typical poem expressed the essence of an object, person, or incident without explanations
Strongly influenced by traditional Chinese and Japanese poetry
Harlem Renaissance Characteristics
A cultural blossoming of African American literature in Harlem in Northern Manhattan in New York.
First time African American authors were taken seriously by the society at large
Artists celebrated their culture and exalted their heritage
Post-Modernism
1949
{
1951
1952
1953
1955
1959
{
1960
1961
1964
1966
1971
1982
1985
Present
Death of a Salesman
by Arthur Miller
The Catcher in the Rye
by J.D. Salinger
Collected Poems
by Marianne Moore
Invisible Man
by Ralph Ellison
The Waking
by Theodore Roethke
"The Life You Save May Be Your Own"
by Flannery O'Connor
Life Studies
by Robert Lowell
West of Your City
by William Stafford
Catch-22
by Joseph Heller
The Far Field
by Theodore Roethke
The Fixer
by Bernard Malamud
Rabbit Redux
by John Updike
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
The Accidental Tourist
by Anne Tyler
Post-Modernism Characteristics
Viewed World War II, the Holocaust, and the dropping of the atomic bomb as undercutting assumptions of life’s meaning
Influenced by studies of media and language and the growth of media and technology
Loss of belief in the dividing line between high culture and low culture
Literary techniques and forms include dialogue alone and many works that blend fiction and nonfiction
Writers focus on capturing the characteristics of contemporary life
Works sometimes reflect on their own making as they evolve
Mushrooms
by Sylvia Plath
Period 3
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