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Transcript of Climate Change
Kristine Koran Pre industrial-revolution : 275ppm of C02
We are now at 397ppm of C02..
The most important number: 350ppm of C02 The [C02] curve The Global Impacts We need to cut 22 metric tons of C02 emissions every year for the next 10 years to reduce the global C02 concentration from 397ppm to below 350ppm.
Global average is 3.92 metrics tons C02 per capita
American average 19.78 metric tons C02 per capita The root of the problem 350 ppm of C02
is estimated to be the highest safe concentration of C02 in our atmosphere. Ocean Acidification
Mosquitoes range increases
Decrease in available nutrients, i.e calcium for CaC03 utilizing creatures
Changing flora and fauna due to temperatures Melting of Antarctic ice sheets.
Melting of arctic ocean, new ocean.
Loss of endangered, or threatened species.
Huge decrease in global biodiversity. [390ppm]: This is about 30% higher than atmospheric CO2 levels for at least 800,000 years before the industrial revolution. To Stabilize Our Climate… Pre industrial-revolution : [275ppm of C02]
We are now at [397ppm of C02..and climbing]
The most important number: [350ppm of C02] Atmospheric C02 Climate Change.. is it too late? http://climate.nasa.gov/effects
“By 2030, renewables will account for 70% of new power supply worldwide”- Bloomberg New Engergy Finance” Bikesbelong.org
Bicycle, 21 g CO2/passenger/km traveled
Passenger car, 271 g CO2/passenger/km traveled
Bus, 101 CO2/passenger/km traveled
If 5% of New Yorkers commuting by private car or taxi switched to biking to work, they could save 150 million pounds of CO2 emissions per year, equivalent to the amount reduced by planting a forest 1.3 times the size of Manhattan Be green to make a difference! Using recycled paper can save 1.4 tons of CO2 for every ton of paper and cardboard Reduce Reuse Recycle 10 Years to reduce 207.2 billion tons of Carbon Dioxide Emissions
2014 Stop all deforestation. Carbon sequestered annually by 18 acres of U.S. forests is equal to 22 metric tons
2015 By substituting 60 billion gallons of ethanol for gasoline by 2023 will leads to reduction of carbon emissions by 35 metric tons
2016 Cut driving in half to 5,000 miles, not 10,000 miles will save 25 metric tons of carbon
2017 Cut electricity use in public buildings by 50% through use of super-efficient lighting and appliances
2018: Increased fuel efficiency of automobiles from 30mpg to 60mpg.
2019: Increase green public transportation in all major cities, including fuel efficiency.
2020: Promote bike riding to local places, If 5% of New Yorkers commuting by private car or taxi switched to biking to work, they could save 150 million pounds of CO2 emissions per year
2021: Wind power 20% of US Power by 2030, increase all renewable energy resources
2022: Reduce meat consumption by 25%, curtail methane production
2023: Convert open cropland to conservation forest
2024: Reduce birth rate to prevent 8 billion people by 2056 Carbon emissions have been high enough to boost the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere to present day levels of [397 parts per million].
30% higher than atmospheric CO2 levels for the past 800,000 years prior to the industrial revolution. The experts are saying we have years, not decades, to stabilize our climate. our home, our health,
& our ecnomney [ 350ppm C02] Climaterealityproject.org
41pounds.org Spread the Climate TRUTH Ocean acts as a buffer
Lowering pH reduction of carbonate ion concentrations
Lowers Aragonite saturation state
Issues for Calcium Carbonate producing organisms Ocean Chemistry & Climate Change CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ CO32- + 2H+ Sea Surface Temperature Coral Dominated
Pictures by Dr. K. Beach Phase Shift in last 30+ years of Florida Keys Sea Surface temperature
Slow growing corals
Highly sensitive to pH, temperature, light intensity and pollution
Algae fast growing in turbid, eutrophic waters
Increased water pollution
Deforestation Why the Phase Shift? Photos: USGS Same coral head 10 years
later taken in 1998 Star Coral in 1988 showing signs of coral bleaching Corals in trouble Coral Distribution Over 100 countries benefit from the ecological services of coral reefs.
Economic stimulus ranges from $175B to $370B yearly. Economic Importance of Coral Reefs! M. Schuttenberg
2006 Coral Bleaching Map
Effects of a rising SST -
Changes to the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms
Impact global nutrient circulation
Changes in feeding patterns
Alter migration, breeding patterns
Sensitive species like coral reefs and phytoplankton
Shift storm tracks (heavy precipitation, increasing droughts)
Increased intensity and frequency of tropical storms
Increased melting of the polar ice caps
Arctic Sea Ice coverage lowest level recorded in 2012 via satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has risen by 0.13C from 1901 to 2011 (NOAA, 2011)
SST has been the highest in the past three decades Coral bleaching first observed at atmospheric [C02] greater than 320ppm, and global mass bleaching occurred at 340ppm
- Veron et. al 2009 Freiburg, Germany reduced the average household energy consumption by 80%.
San Francisco has an earlier target of 100% renewable electricity by
Lancaster, California, has set a goal of 100% renewable energy for the same year.
Germany as a whole is aiming for 80% renewable electricity by 2050
Denmark is aiming for for 100% renewables by 2050. China’s growing energy demands have also prompted it to invest more than $70 billion a year in nuclear, wind, solar and biomass projects. The future is here! earthobservatory.nasa.gov http://gulfsci.usgs.gov/tampabay/images/watshed2.gif Watershed area of 5,896 km2
Estuarine Surface area of 959 km2
Rivers discharging into Tampa Bay
Alafia Tampa Bay Tampa Bay has approx. 34,642 acres of seagrass beds
Types of Seagrasses:
-Syringodium filiforme Tampa Bay has gained 1,745 acres of seagrass between 2010 and 2012
Now- 34,642 acres
Goal- 38,000 acres Seagrass Beds… Hurricanes vs. Seagrass Beds Physical Impacts Include:
Uprooting of rhizomes
Indirect Physical Impacts:
Light Stress caused by suspended sediments, phytoplankton blooms, and dissolved organic matter Seagrasses are very resistant to hurricane impacts
however... with increased intensity of storms the negative impacts are going to heavily effect the health of the seagrass beds. What marine habitat can they be found? Hippocampus zosterae Metabolic Rate:
Rate of total energy metabolized by an animal
per unit of time. Tampa Bay What are the deniers saying? "But we breathe out CO2! What should we do stop breathing?" YOU will
make a difference! How can YOU can make a difference....Meat the truth! The livestock sector is responsible for 18% of the GHGs globally.
A cows GHG emissions is equivelent to driving 45,000 miles in one year. To decrease from [397ppm] to [350ppm] [98.7ppm] is equal to [207.21Gt C02]
For the next 10 years we must reduce our Carbon Footprint by 22Gt C02 every year.
Step 1: Meatless Mondays by 313M Americans will save 0.0927Gt C02 The Oceans Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 297 (2003) 141-159 "Climate change is a hoax! The Sea Ice is expanding!" "I won't be around to see these impacts, and there's nothing I can do, so whatever." What are the main causes of seagrass decline? Effect of temperature and gender on metabolic rate. It appears that the thermal maximum observed in the keys (33) dramatically increased the metabolic rates of animals collected in Tampa Bay (high water temp observed in TB is 31). In addition, female metabolic rates are higher than that observed in males. (significant by a 2 way ANOVA) Current Study... Question:
Does Temperature Effect the Metabolic Rate of Hippocampus Zosterae? What does their diet consist of? They are monogamous... what does this mean? What level on the IUCN Threatened Species List are they on? Some areas have already reached 100%!
Rhein-Hunsrueck, Germany. Starting with energy efficiency and moving on to generating its own power, the region of 101,000 inhabitants now produces not 100% but 104% of its energy from renewable sources! In this figure, NR is non-reproductive (animals that were separated from the opposite sex) and R is reproductive (animals housed with the opposite sex and observed courting). Reproductive males and females had higher metabolic rates than did non reproductive animals, with a dramatic effect seen at the higher temperature. (significant by a 2 way ANOVA) How does increase metabolic rate effect Hippocampus zosterae? Sea Level Rise Since 1870 sea levels have risen 8 in.
Projections show a 2m. rise by 2100 Where is the water coming from?
Melting Glaciers and Ice Caps
Melting Ice Sheets Algal Dominated