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Chapter 11: Processes of Emotion in the Workplace
Transcript of Chapter 11: Processes of Emotion in the Workplace
THE WORKPLACE Emotion at work: emotions that emerge from relationships in the workplace rather than from the job itself (Miller et al., 2007)
Aspects of work that are emotional
Relationships with co-workers
Emotional content of workplace
Workplace bullying Emotional intelligence: perceived rules that govern emotional life in an organization. (Kramer and Hess, 2002)
Coworkers, Customers, and Clients.
Most often cited: “The need to be professional.
Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ) (high score) clear understanding of the rules of emotional display and an ability to follow and adapt those rules as necessary.
Emotion is central in the workplace. How would you define it? Aspects of work relationships that create potential for intense emotion in organization
Tension between the public/private in work relationships
Relational networks and emotional “buzzing”
Emotional rights and obligations at work
(Waldron, 2000) Arlie Hochschild
First scholar to study this concept in her book "The Managed Heart" (1983)
Emotional labor refers to jobs in which workers are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations.
Emotional labor leads to...
Surface acting or deep acting. Antecedents of emotional labor (ex: gender, task requirements, closeness of monitoring).
Dimensions of emotional labor (ex: frequency of emotional display, variety of expressed emotion, degree of emotional dissonance.
Consequences of emotional labor (ex: burnout and job dissatisfaction). For Example, Flight attendants “paste on a smile” to satisfy the airline’s requirement of a friendly face in the cabin.
Similar occupations include waitresses, workers in emergency call centers, cruise ship employees, financial advisers, and correctional officers. Emotion as Part of the Job Factors of Emotional Labor Emotional Work Defined by Miller
Emotional work involves people who are not in front line service jobs but instead hold professional positions in industries such as healthcare, education, or human services.
"Genuine Emotion" Genuine + Managed Both types of emotion are expressed. Compassionate Communication Workers communicate emotionally in ways that involve processes of noticing, connecting, and responding. Emotion as Part of Workplace Relationships Emotional Rules and Emotional Intelligence emotional behavior that can lead to a bending of the rules of professional display in the workplace (Morgan and Krone, 2001) Naturally better at understanding and managing the emotional content of workplace relationships
display that emotional intelligence which is also a skill that can be developed through training. STRESS Hard to define “stress” Stressors: create a strain on the individual called...
Burnout: which leads to different psychological, physiological, and organizational outcomes. Freudenberger (1974) explored“wearing out” from pressures at work. A chronic condition that results as daily work stressors take their toll on employees. Maslach focused on human service workers (1982) and developed three interrelated dimensions of "burnout"
Emotional Exhaustion: the core of the burnout phenomenon. Ex: fatigued, frustrated, used up, or unable to face another day on the job.
Lack of Personal Accomplishment: refers to workers who see themselves as failures, incapable of effectively accomplishing job requirements.
Depersonalization: relevant only to workers who must communicate inter personally with others (ex: clients, patients, students) as part of the job. When burned out, workers tend to “view other people through rust-colored glasses- developing a poor opinion of them, expecting the worst from them, and even actively disliking them.”- Maslach 1982 Stressors that lead to burnout Workload
Role Ambiguity Workload: too much (quantitatively) too difficult (qualitatively)
Role conflict: two or more requirements that clash with one another
Role ambiguity: exists when there is uncertainty about the role requirements Burnout can also result from stressors outside the workplace. For example: Divorce, Retirement, Pregnancy, Death, Moving Outcomes of Burnout Long Term Physiological Attitudinal Organizational Heart disease
High Blood Pressure Lower job satisfaction linked with burnout Turnover Emotional causes of burnout Emotional Dissonance: continued display of fake/untrue emotions Natural emotions: result from empathy emotional contagion-"feeling with" someone empathetic concern-"feeling for" someone Coping with burnout Individual problem-centered dealing directly with
cause of burnout appraisal-centered changing perception of
stressful situation dealing with negative
affective outcomes emotion-centered Organizational socialization programs clarifies roles monitor workload allow time-outs/
schedule flexibility employees can recharge allows workers to take care of family needs Communicative Coping PDM Social Support participate in
decision making "more accurate knowledge of the formal/informal expectations held by others and the formal/informal policies/procedures of the organization" (Jackson 1983) makes employees feel more valued protects from major/minor stresses of life 3 major functions: emotional support informational support instrumental support one boosts other's self-esteem facts and advice physical/material assistance & who? supervisors coworkers friends/family instrumental/informational informational/emotional emotional/instrumental Q&A How does emotion positively influence work place situations and scenarios?
Can emotional intelligence enhance organizational learning?
Do you think it is possible to remove all emotions from the workplace?
How can mandated, strict, organizational adherence to emotional display rules increase instances of employees burnout? Miller, K. (2012). Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes. (6 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Pub Co.