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Organisational Psychology: Motivation
Transcript of Organisational Psychology: Motivation
Motivation is what energizes, directs, interests and sustains performance in people/employees
People can have plenty of ability, but no motivation (and the opposite as well). This leads to low performance.
The basic equation is [Motivation X Ability] - Situational Constraints = Performance What affects Motivation? Pressure
Yerkes-Dodson Performance Curve
Too little pressure = "boredom" (No motivation due to no challenge)
Too much pressure = "Burn Out" (Become too stressed and end up being frazzled by the pressure)
Certain optimum amount of pressure = motivation
Benifits of Work
List of aspects that affect motivation at work
Money (after a certain point money does not increase motivation)
Activity (Having something to do)
Variety (Having more than one thing to do at work/avoiding repitition)
Temporal Structure (Having a routine)
Social Contacts (work friends)
Status and Identity in society (job title and profession) Job satisfaction "A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one's job" (Locke, 1976)
Job satisfaction includes personal preferences and qualities within the job (company/job structure)
Organisational policies and procedures
Specific aspects of the job - e.g. shiftwork, pay etc
Personal e.g. achievement
Work satisfaction affects a person's satisfaction with their life outside of work
Job satisfaction has been found to affect physical health and mental health, but doesn't seem to be related to productivity - People can love their job but be terrible at it! Content (What motivates?) Theories Cognitive or Process theories Equity theory (Adams, 1963)
Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964;Porter and Lawler, 1968)
Goal setting (Locke and Latham, 1985)
Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1986) Equity Theory Based on Festinger's dissonance theory - Social Psychology
Suggests that tension exists when individuals hold incompatible thoughts (e.g. a smoker who believes that smoking causes cancer - causes dissonance)
Assumes that individuals always seek "balance" and will direct behaviour towards creating balance.
Social comparison theory
Based on perceptions of reality, not reality itself - do people THINK that they are being treated fairly?
Individuals look at the world in terms of comparative inputs and outputs (we look to other people to decide whether or not something is "fair".
If people see what they get for their work as fair then they are satisfied.
Perceptions of inequity
Overpayment - rewards seen a greater than others - results in guilt
Underpayment - seen as lower - results in anger
Equitable payment - seen as equal - results in satisfaction
People who think they are underpaid work less, people who think they are overpaid work more!
How do people Reduce Inequity?
Attempting to gain more money/outputs
Leaving the situation/job
Rethink the situation - "my situation isn't that bad really" - modify perceptions
Change who it is that you compare yourself with.
Study of Equity Theory
Baseball players who were paid less than their peers attempted to restore inequity by performing badly. Motivation: How to motivate the workforce! General principals History Elton Mayo (1920s)
Introduced the concepts of emotions into Organisation Psychology in America
Argued that factory work lead to negative emotions such as anger and fear, lowered work performance and contributed to illness. This lead to the development of labour unions and work unrest.
"Happiness" survey of all working adults in small town in Pennsylvania.
Brayfield & Crockett (1955)
Little evidence of a relationship between job satisfaction and performance
Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson and Capwell (1957)
Relationship between job satisfaction and some work behaviours (turnover, absenteeism etc)
Led to introduction of Herzberg's "two factor" theory
Happiness at work surveys (2012) Measures Includes overall satisfaction with job rather than satisfaction with specific aspects.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
Smith, Kendal and Hulin (1969)
72 statements, 5 areas - work itself, supervision, people, pay and promotion
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
Weiss, Dawis, England and Lofquist (1967)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic satisfaction
Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (Spector, 1985) "Person as a machine" theories Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
5 levels of needs
Physiological needs (food and water)
Security needs (shelter)
Love/social needs (acceptance by others)
Esteem needs (respect for accomplishments)
Self-actualization (developing to fullest)
Employers need to be able to gauge what level employees are at. Hezberg's two factor theory (1966)
Independent of each other, not hierarchical
Hygiene (physical and security needs)
Meeting these needs (working conditions, salary, security etc) prevent dissatisfaction, but do not motivate.
Motivator (Social, esteem and self actualization)
Meeting these needs (Achievement, recognition, responsibility etc) satisfy and motivate. Learning (Reinforcement) Theory
Behaviourism (B.F. Skinner)
Stimulus, response, rewards - Rewards = increased behaviour, punishments = decreased behaviour
Intermittent or Continuous
Intermittent rewards produce higher performance levels
Requires careful observation
Limited role for cognitive activity Expectancy (VIE) theory Vroom, 1964
Expectancy = the belief that effort will result in performance (e.g. sales target). Employees expend effort because they believe that certain levels of performance are attainable. Instrumentality = belief that performance will lead to rewards
Valence = the value that an individual places on an outcome/reward (different people will value certain rewards differently.
Expectancy formula: Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
Motivational chain is only as strong as its weakest link
Rewards can be intrinsic (feelings of satisfaction etc) or extrinsic (monetary/tangible)
How to motivate people with expectancy theory
Make sure people have the skills for the job
Make it clear that hard work will lead to better performance
Make it clear that better performance will lead to higher rewards
Give rewards that are valued by the workers (high valence)
Criticisms of expectancy theory
Over-intellectualizes cognitive processes of people when selecting alternative actions (Schwab et al, 1979)
Pays little attention to WHY an individual values/does not value particular rewards or outcomes (Arnold et al, 1991) Goal Setting Locke and Latham (1990) 5 different aspects of theory Goal specificity - specific goals lead to better performance than "do your best" goals Goal difficulty - specific goals should be paired with difficult but attainable goals Goal acceptance - Extent to which the individual accepts the goal as legitimate Goal commitment - interest in attaining the goal Feedback - progress feedback is required for employees to be aware of how they are doing so so they can adjust their work strategy if needed Goals: Direct attention to task at hand, mobilize effort (energize), lead to persistence and can lead to new strategies (Locke and Latham, 2002) SMART goals:
S - specific
M - measurable
A - attainable
R - Relevant
T - timescale Feedback loop is important between knowledge of results and intermediate stages
Based on the principle of feedback loop
Assumes individuals compare a standard to an actual outcome and adjust their behaviour to bring outcome into agreement with a standard
Criticisms of goal setting:
Lack of studies on goals that reflect quality rather than quantity
Theory could be compromised where there are conflicting goals
Group goals and performance neglected (Tends to be focused on individuals)
Effectiveness of theory mainly tested in laboratory but some workplace studies Ilies and Judge (2005) - Goal regulation
Hypothesized that individuals will adjust their goals depending on feedback
Experiment - students completed trials and then given feedback.
Feedback expressing non-goal attainment led to adjusting
goals downward. Positive feedback = goals up! Self Efficacy Bandura, 1986 Central to goal directed behaviour and performance
Belief in one's capacity to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal. Essentially a person's belief in their ability to succeed in a given situation. Developed from Mastery experiences (performing a task successfully), Modelling ("if they can do it so can I") and Social persuasion (verbal encouragement from others - increases confidence)
Influenced by Physiological states (i.e. fatigue, excitement etc)
Linked to goal accomplishment and feedback Strong self efficacy = view challenging problems as tasks to master, develop deeper interest in tasks, form commitment to task, recover quickly from disappointment Weak self efficacy = avoid challenging tasks, believe that difficult tasks are beyond their capabilities, focus on personal failings and quickly lose confidence in their abilities. Job redesign Highly motivated employee usually has job which is meaningful, involves some responsibility and produces a satisfactory output
Hackman and Oldham (1975) - Job enrichment - 5 aspects that enrich a job Skill variety - the degree to which a job requires multiple skills
Task identity - the extent to which the job allows the employee to complete identifiable pieces of work.
Task significance - extent to which the task has a perceivable impact on others
Autonomy - responsibility and independence
Task feedback - information about the workers effectiveness Motivational Interventions Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)
Utilizes goal setting, rewards and feedback to increase motivation and performance
Key element is feedback - staff receive regular, high quality feedback which is used to improve productivity
Evidence shows significant gains in productivity following uses of ProMES