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The bodies response to long term exercise: The Muscular System
Transcript of The bodies response to long term exercise: The Muscular System
The bodies response to long term exercise: The Muscular System
Muscular hypertrophy is where the muscles cells increase in size and volume (increase in muscle fibre size). The muscles increase in size because of muscle fibre tears, when these tears repair themselves, as a result the muscle will increase in size (small muscle fibre tears occur when you overload the muscle). Men have the greater potential to be bigger than women due to the higher levels of hormone testosterone. Common exercises that result in muscular hypertrophy are high intensity activities such as weightlifting. During exercise there is an increase in fluid (sarcoplasm) and connective tissues within the muscles, this is known as sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. Muscles also add small muscle fibres which also increases muscular hypertrophy.This is due to long term exercise. Muscular hypertrophy benefits an athlete because this increase in size enables athletes to withstand a greater force which makes the athlete stronger. For example a weightlifter will increase the amount of weights he/she does to improve strength and be able to lift more over a long period of time.
Tendons are made up of strong connective tissues designed to withstand tension, they attach to bones and joints (they connect the muscle to the bone). If you exercise on a regular basis your tendons will increase in density (this increases tendon strength). If a tendon cell is damaged the body will replace it with an even stronger one to deal with the bodies demand. When a strong tendon is outstretched a high amount of stress occurs the tendon returns to its original state the recoil is really strong which can be beneficial for baseball players and quarterbacks in American football, this is beneficial because when the athletes throw the ball this recoil will enable the athlete to throw the ball will a great deal of power which is needed for a bowler in baseball (to strike out the batter) and quarter back in American football (to throw the ball past the opposition). As long as the exercise you are performing is of a high intensity and putting stress on the tissues then the tendons are going to change regardless of the type of exercise. For example if you do resistance training and lift heavy weights then the tendons and muscles are both going to increase in strength. similarly if you work anaerobically and do a high intensity exercise such as a 100m sprint the tendons and muscles in your legs are also going to increase in strength as they are put under a great deal of strength. However the lower intensity the activity the less effect this will have on the tendons e.g. doing light weights for longer (this is still resistance training but it is a lower intensity because the light weight isn't putting stress on the tendons).
Increase in tendon strength
Myoglobin is a protein that is used to carry oxygen to the mitochondria. Myoglobin stores increase when you exercise on a regular basis because they get used to the demand that is put upon them when the individual exercises. This means that the myoglobin stores increase to carry more oxygen. Myoglobin is found in cardiac and skeletal muscle and adapted for endurance activities (that require oxygen). Myoglobin affects the body because this substance mixes with oxygen molecules to form oxymyoglobin. Oxymyoglobin is basically an emergency oxygen storage site for when the body is in oxygen deprivation. This affects the body and the athlete in a positive way because when you are doing strenuous exercise and the oxygen supplied by the blood isn't enough this storage of oxygen will help meet the demands that is placed upon the body and will help the athlete carry on. This could be good for a marathon runner who is nearing the end of a race and needs that little bit of extra energy to get him/herself to the finishing line.
Increase in myoglobin stores
Mitochondria (mitochondrion singular) are cells that are from 0.5-1 micrometre in diameter. They’re main function is to supply/produce energy to ATP. When an individual exercises on a regular basis the number of mitochondria will increase to allow metabolism to take place (resynthesis/creation of energy). This allows more oxygen to be transported around the body and results in an increased number of mitochondria. Mitochondria will affect the body because an increase in mitochondria means an increase in energy production. This affects the body and the athlete because the more energy that is produced the longer and the higher the intensity the athlete can work at.
Increased number of mitochondria
Glycogen is basically sugar, many foods and drinks contain glycogen so whatever we take in can then be digested and glycogen will be formed. Triglycerides (fats) are the favored fuel source for endurance based activities such as long distance running. For triglycerides to be used as an energy source oxygen has to be used in conjunction with glycogen. Unused molecules are stored as fat in the body. They are both used as an energy source to fuel the body. When you exercise on a regular basis there will be an increase in glycogen and fat stores. This is because when you exercise there is an increased production of mitochondria (the cells that supply energy). This affects the glycogen and fat stores because if more mitochondria are produced to supply energy then more energy is needed so the glycogen and fat stores increase. An increased storage of glycogen and affects the body because the more glycogen and fat that is available, the more energy that can be created so exercise can be prolonged.
Increased storage of glycogen and fat
Resistance training is where your muscles have to deal with the stress that is put upon them. Increased muscle strength is a result of long term exercise because when your muscles are overworked (overloaded) this puts more weight on the muscles. Over time your muscles will deal with this resistance (weight) by increasing in size and helping you deal with the weight (this increases muscle strength). Resistance training is used to increase muscular strength. When muscles are placed under stress muscle fibre tears occur within the muscles. These tears will then repair themselves and as a result the muscle will increase in size (small muscle fibre tears occur when you overload the muscle) which means the muscle will also increase in strength. This increased muscle strength benefits an athlete because the increase in size enables athletes to withstand a greater force which makes the athlete stronger. For example a weightlifter will start the lifting the heaviest weights he/she. As a result the fibre tears will occur and once they have repaired themselves the muscles will increase in size and become stronger which enables the weightlifter to lift bigger weights. For the muscles to repair the body needs protein, within this there are amino acids, white blood cells and macrophages which all work together to repair the tears and make the muscle stronger.
Increased muscle strength
Lactic acid is a substance that is produced when you take part in strenuous exercise (usually when you work aerobically). When lactic acid builds up inside the body (once the glycogen is broken down) it will cause the athlete to fatigue if they carry on at the same intensity. This means the athlete will have to slow down or even stop the activity that he/she is doing. This muscle fatigue can also result in muscular pain, this could slow the athlete down or even stop the activity. Your tolerance to lactic acid is tested when there is a build-up in lactic acid. For example if an individual took part in a 400m run lactic acid might start to build up and cause the athlete to fatigue. If the individual took part in this 400m on a regular basis then the individual would not fatigue as quickly, this is because your body will get used to performing this exercise on a regular basis which will train your body over time to get rid of the acid more efficiently and be more tolerant of it. The increased capillary network effects the removal of lactic acid and the supply of oxygen. This is because the capillaries increase in size which means more blood can supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles, lactic acid can also be flushed out as the capillaries widen. This benefits the athlete because as the oxygen and nutrients are supplied to muscles, more fat can be used so the muscles become more efficient at using oxygen. This means the athlete can work harder, for longer without fatiguing (due to lactic acid).
Increased tolerance to lactic acid