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Electrical Conductivity in Solutions

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by

Katelynn Dorn

on 16 March 2015

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Transcript of Electrical Conductivity in Solutions

electrolytes- provide ions for conducting electricity when dissolved
strong electrolytes vs. weak electrolytes
Tap Water Conducts Electricity
water contacts soil and rocks, contains ions
could conduct enough electricity to stop a person's heart
why shouldn't you seek shelter under a tree during a storm?
Electrical Conductivities Span a Wide Range
HCl > NaCl > acetic acid > sucrose
hydronium ions (H3O+)
Electrolytes Provide Ions in Solutions
Colligative Properties
Dissolved Solutes Lower Vapor Pressure
freezing point is lowered
boiling point is raised
less solvent particles per volume for vapor pressure to act on
Only Concentration Is Important
The greater the amount of solute, the greater the effect of the property
CaCl2 (3 dissolved particles) > NaCl (2 dissolved particles) > sucrose (1 dissolved particle)
Synthetic Detergents
outperform soaps in hot water
early synthetic detergents were not biodegradable
nonpolar tail connected to salt of sulfonic acid instead of an organic acid
does not form precipitates with Mg2+, Ca2+, and Fe3+ ions
Hard Water Limits Soap
detergent- water-soluble cleaner that can emulsify dirt and oil (soap)
emulsion- colloid-sized particles suspended in a liquid
soap scum- insoluble salts
Electrical Conductivity in Solutions
Colligative Properties
Surfactants

13.4 Physical Properties of Solutions
solute changes properties of solvents
freezing point depression- salt on ice
boiling point elevation- glycol in a car's radiator
boundary between two immiscible phases
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