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Unit 8: Reconstruction
Transcript of Unit 8: Reconstruction
Politics of Reconstruction
The Reconstruction Era
1865 - 1876
Lincoln's 10% Plan
(AKA "Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction)
What were the competing political plans for reconstructing the defeated Confederacy?
How did African Americans negotiate the difficult transition from slavery to freedom?
What were the most important political and social legacies of Reconstruction in the southern states?
How did the economic and political transformation in the North reflect another side of Reconstruction?
Bringing the South back into the Union.
Southern states readmitted to Union when:
10% 1860 voters swore oath of allegiance to the Union.
Must draft revised Constitution
Guaranteed protection of private property
(slaves not included)
But first, here's this awesome overview...
Radical Republicans and the Wade-Davis Bill
50% seceding state's white males take loyalty oath
Freed blacks cannot vote; gain "equality"
Effort to punish rebellious South
Lincoln vetoed bill
Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction
Fun fact #1: Only Southern Senator to remain loyal to the Union
Pardon Southerners who swore allegiance oath
Restore property rights to (see above)
Exclude planter class & Confederate officials
No voting rights/civil rights plans for freed blacks
Fun fact #3: Congress tried to impeach him for this.
Fun fact #2: Did this after Congress adjourned session
"Civil War Amendments"
Important Additional Terminology of the Politics of Reconstruction
Laws passed by states denying rights of citizenship to free blacks
Most were in effect through the 1960s.
Civil Rights Bill (1866)
Gave full citizenship to African Americans
The Civil Rights Movement starts HERE
(not with Rosa Parks)
Created by Congress, 1865
Purpose was to provide:
advice about freedom
protection for former slaves
protection for destitute whites
Get a reading from Mrs. Goostree
What about women?
What's the meaning of freedom?
For Freed Blacks freedom meant:
Independence from white control
Moving about the country
Establishing families, churches, schools
Economic, political, & social autonomy
Sharecropping and Tenant Farming
Landowners furnish laborers with:
advanced credit at "store"
Share of crop
Why was sharecropping appealing?
"Freedom" from white supervision
Families set their hours and tasks
Ended chronic shortage of cash/credit for owners
2/3 of all sharecroppers were white
1/3 of all sharecroppers were black
The Barrow Plantation, Oglethorpe County, Georgia
Source: Scribner's Monthly, April 1881
Reconstruction Re-shapes Politics
Origins of African American Politics
Political conventions reflect tension AND unity
Tensions caused by:
Unified on issues:
equality b/4 law
Voted Republican. Why?
Organized in Northern cities
Helped Southern freedmen organize voting
Origins of white backlash
African Americans (North and South)
White Northern-born Southerners
White Southern natives
Relief from debt & wartime devastation
Get rid of "planter elite"
Prewar Political Division:
White control of politics
Obtain land from African-Americans
Reconstructing the States
Old Confederate leaders barred from political participation
[leads to rise of Republican party]
New Republicans fought for:
equal rights (at least for men)
penalties for civil rights violations
public school equality
Often accepted segregation out of funding fears
White Resistance and "Redemption"
White Southerners don't recognize Rep.
Paramilitary groups use terror to intimidate
Ku Klux Klan used:
prevent equal access
~1873-'83, Supreme Court weakened enforcement of 14th & 15th Amendments ~overturned convictions of Klan members.