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Leadership Psychological factors
Transcript of Leadership Psychological factors
Leadership In Sport
Today we will look at task 2 in the brief
We will all look at what is meant by cohesion
What do you understand by the term Cohesion?
Task and Social Cohesion
On the worksheet provided identify which teams need the most Cohesion.
Cohesion refers to the dynamic process that is reflected by the tendency of a group for it to stick together in order to achieve the group objectives.
Using the BTEC books, p64 identify what is meant by Task and Social Cohesion.
Tuckman (1965) identified 4 distinct stages that groups must go through during the formation of a group. These are:
Stages of Group Development
Ringelmann Effect and Social Loafing
Promote Social Cohesion/ Togetherness
Prevent Role Ambiguity
Match/ Individual Game Analysis
How Do You Think That You Could Reduce These Effects?
With a partner, choose 1 sports person each and describe to them why you think their psychological make up makes them successful?
Personality types are arranged on 2 dimensions.
Can you think of an example of a sports person who is
High levels of excitation.
Tend not to need added stimulation & excitement.
Prefer to take part in activities requiring more precision eg. Long distance running
Introvert behaviour is shy, quiet & reserved.
Said to achieve more in higher arousal situations.
Prefer team oriented situations.
Like activities which involve gross motor skills.
Prefer activities which are less continuous eg.marathon could be demotivating & become bored.
Extrovert behaviour is loud, bright & outgoing.
Anna Kournikova Tanni-Grey Thomson John Terry Kelly Holmes Jose Mourinho
Martin Johnson Ronnie O’Sullivan Steve Redgrave Stephen Hendry Kevin Pietersen
Monty Panesar Sven Goran Eriksson Paula Radcliffe Amir Kahn Tiger Woods
There are 3 sports people below who display significantly different characteristics to the rest, who are they and why do you think this?!
Sven Goran Eriksson
Like Sven, Stephen is a thinker and is reserved in his approach in comparison with Ronnie O’Sullivan.
Kournikova appears to be less competitive as she concentrates on commercial modelling rather than tennis.
Sven is more of a strategist, taking his time to work through things. As a result he works more slowly and is less prone to stress.
If you identified the 3 below as sports people who all display more type ‘B’ characteristics than type ‘A’ then well done!
Neurotic behaviour is unstable, varied and extreme
Stable behaviour is consisitent and predictable
Can you think of sport people for all of the above personality types?
Personalities can be placed anywhere on the continuum.
Motivation refers to a sport performers drive to take part and to persist in a sport or physical activity session.
Two types of Motivation
In its simplest form, this is when a sports performer participates in sport for the enjoyment
Extrinsic motivation is when a sports performer behaves in a certain way because of external rewards. There are two types of external rewards; tangible and intangible rewards. Tangible rewards are physical things that can be given, i.e money trophies medals etc. Intangible rewards are non physical rewards, such as praise or encouragement
It is important to give rewards sparingly for extrinsic motivation to be successful in sports activity sessions. If the reward is given too frequently, it will be of little value as the sports performer will become accustomed to it and expect it
A sports leader must be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of stress, anxiety and arousal. A good leader should be aware of the most effective state of mind in which an athlete performs. For example, the performance of some athletes is improved by higher levels of anxiety and arousal, whereas it can lead to a poor performance for others
Stress, anxiety and arousal
Stress is defined by lazarus and Folkman (1984) as ‘a pattern of negative physiological states and psychological responses occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well-being, which they may be unable to meet’ there two forms of stress- eustress and distress
Look at different types of cohesion
Look at Tuckman's stages of group development and social loafing
What do we think is meant by each term?
Can a team be successful with one and not the other?
Which teams will need, which type of cohesion
Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing
It is seen essential for a team to develop, face challenges, tackle problems, find solutions and deliver results as can be done through this theory.
Forming is the first part of the process and this is simple where the team forms or in other words come established. Roles of each person within the group is decided to those who seem most suitable. In terms of conflict within the group, it is avoided at this stage. Drive from within the group comes from acceptance by one another.
Storming is the second part and this is where the leader and other teammates are in question in terms of ability. As a result this could impact on the leader in terms of relationships between them and the teammates. Small confrontations arise due to this and cracks appear within the group.
At this point the team start working better together and also feel more comfortable in their role. This is because the conflict/in hostility that occurred in the previous stage is replaced with cooperation and solidarity. The group starts working towards common goals. The leader will expect the
At this stage the team works very well together through being task orientated. Trust exists within the group. Each person is secure with their contribution to the performance of the team.
Coaches can take advantage of the norming stage by giving the group goals and targets as they start to work better together and use these goals and targets. This leads on to performing. If a coach plays it right the performing stage will come fast and this is the aim to make the most out of the team.
Knowing this theory will help a coach in many ways in building a successful team. To understand what happens in a group of people when developing will mean that coaches can take certain steps to speed up the process and make bonding better.
Understanding that a group needs to go through a process of forming will tell a coach they will need to do team building for the group, possibly even before they start planing the sport so that the group gets to know each other and work well together.
Understanding that teams will go through a phase of storming and disagreement will help preparing for this as a coach, understand that it will happen and make sure that any confrontations are dealt with. Getting through this phase quickly is important so that the team starts working effective together.
Task Cohesion - This is about how much a team works together to achieve a goal/objective. This type of cohesion is the closest related to performance from the two and therefore usually the most important because you are there to win.
A team can have either one of the cohesion's because they are independent. So a team could perform well but not get on well. On the other hand they could all get on very well but perform poorly.
Social Cohesion - This is all about how well a team gets on socially rather than in terms of performance. If a team has very good social cohesion then whether they win or loose, they will all get on very well and enjoy each others company.
However it's possible for a team to have both cohesion's and this will put them at a great advantage over competitors.
The theory was that one person could lift 100lbs, then two people could lift 200lbs and so on.
However the results were..
The more people who lift together the less potential they were reaching.
This happens as individuals have a tendency to lower their effort and 'hide' within the group. This can be caused by low confidence, not being recognized or praised, belief that effort wont change result, perceived low ability
Why did this happen?
What is personality? Write down your own definition.
How do you think our personalities are formed?
What effects how are personality develops?
Personality is……….“The sum total of an individual’s psychological characteristics which make him or her unique.”
“Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to be relatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes that exert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”
Can you think of different personality traits?
Can you think of an example of a sports person who is extroverted?
Can you think of what motivates you?
What other things might motivate someone?
This is when someone participates in an activity without an external reward and/or without the primary motivation being the achievement of external reward
Arousal is your level of excitement and readiness to perform
Two different theories on arousal
Inverted U theory
Eustress is a good form of stress that can give you a feeling of fulfillment. Some athletes actively seek out stressful situations as they like the challenge of pushing themselves to the limit.
This can help them increase their skill level and focus their attention on aspects of their sport. The benefit is that increases in intrinsic motivation follow
Distress is a bad type of stress that arises when you must adapt to too many negative demands.
Anxiety is known as a negative emotional state that is linked with nervousness and worry.
This negative stress state can cause performance levels to decrease, which then can lead to confidence to drop.
Some symptoms of anxiety can actually benefit sports performance. For example anxiety increases blood flow, breathing and respiration rate