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Music Technology 2

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by

Jeff Earle

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Music Technology 2

MUSIC TECHNOLOGY 2
THE Science of Sound
KEY TERMS
The Sound wave
The Compressor
Dynamics Processor
Threshold-
Sets the DB level that opens gate
RATIO-
Sets ratio for expander
OPEN/CLOSE LED
THRESHOLD-
Sets DB level that activates Compression process
RATIO-
Sets The ratio of Compression
ATTACK-
Sets speed compression begins
RELEASE-
sets speed compression stops
OUTPUT-
Increases gain in order to make-up for gain lost during compression process
GAIN REDUCTION LEDs-
show the amount of volume lost due to compression
THRESHOLD LEDs
show when volume reaches threshold
STEREO COUPLE-
links Channel one & Channel two together for stereo compression
Output Input
SIDECHAIN INSERT
Amplitude
Frequency
Phase
Wavelength/Cycle
Reflects the change in pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough. High-amplitude waveforms are loud; low-amplitude waveforms are quiet. Amplitude intensity is measured in decibels
Describes a single, repeated sequence of pressure changes, from zero pressure, to high pressure, to low pressure, and back to zero. As frequency increases wavelength decreases.
Measured in hertz (Hz), describes the number of cycles per second. (For example, a 1000-Hz waveform has 1000 cycles per second.) The higher the frequency, the higher the musical pitch.
Human hearing extends from 20hz to 20,000hz.
Measured in 360 degrees, indicates the position of a waveform in a cycle. Zero degrees is the start point, followed by 90º at high pressure, 180º at the halfway point, 270º at low pressure, and 360º at the end point.
A. Wavelength

B. Degree of phase

C. Amplitude

D. Frequency
The Auditory System
JUST KIDDING
1 Second
MORE ON PHASE
Separate Signals Mixed Signals
In Phase
Out of Phase

WHAT IS A SOUND WAVE?
Compression
Rarefaction
An energy wave of compression and rarefaction, by which sound is propagated in an elastic medium such as air.
Complex
Waveform
sine wave 1
sine wave 2
COMPRESSION- particles are very close to one another as compared to normal position..
RAREFACTION-
particles of the medium are far apart from the normal position.

Phase Cancellation
Phase cancellation occurs when two signals of the same frequency are out of phase with each other resulting in a net reduction in the overall level of the combined signal. If two identical signals are 100% or 180 degrees out of phase they will completely cancel one another if combined.
Sound waves exist as variations of pressure in a medium such as air. They are created by the vibration of an object, which causes the air surrounding it to vibrate. The vibrating air then causes the human eardrum to vibrate, which the brain interprets as sound.
MORE ON FREQUENCY
Range of Human hearing 20 hz to 20,000 hz
1hz tone
Examples include- Shure SM58 & SM57

Rejection of room acoustics,
background noise, and leakage.

Better gain-before-feedback in a sound-reinforcement system

Broad-angle pickup of sources in front of the microphone

Maximum rejection of sound approaching the rear of the microphone

Variations :
Hyper -Cardioid
Super- Cardioid
Microphone Polar Patterns
Cardioid
An omni pattern picks up sound equally from all directions, which is useful for:
recording choirs
groups of musicians,
and also for capturing the natural room ambiance.
Microphone Polar Patterns
Picks up an equal response from the front and the rear of the microphone but offers excellent sound rejection from both sides or ‘off-axis’.
Microphone Polar Patterns
Live Vocal- things to consider;

Type: Dynamic or condenser

Pattern: Cardioid-Hyper Cardioid

Internal shock mounting: prevents handling noise.

SPL handling capability: The volume it can handle before distortion.

Above 155 dB, you’re only going to find jet engines, assault weapons, and volcanoes.
PICKING A MICROPHONE
Roll-off and pad switches
5 hz tone
10 hz tone
20 hz tone
50 hz tone
100 hz tone
250 hz tone
500 hz tone
1000 hz tone
2500 hz tone
5000 hz tone
10 khz tone
15 khz tone
18 khz tone
20 khz tone
No Phantom Power
DYNAMIC MICROPHONES
Much more rugged
Their ability to withstand high sound pressure levels (SPLs) make them perfect for loud guitar amps, live vocals, and drums.
Uses Phantom Power
Two Different types:
Small Diaphragm- for instruments with fast transient sources.
ex. string instruments, and acoustic guitars
Large Diaphragm- for vocals, anything where a warmer sound is desired
Multi-pattern switches
CONDENSER MICROPHONES
OMNI-DIRECTIONAL
FIGURE OF 8
THIS MIC'S FOR YOU
Microphones for all occasions
Drum Mics
Instrument mics
Balanced/Unbalanced selector button
Timbre
Definition: The character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity.

Two sounds can sound different even if they have the same frequency and amplitude. Example – Piano vs. violin
• We hear the difference as difference in timbre
• This is especially important for human speech distinguish phones/phonemes sounds because it allows us to identify and distinguish phones/phonemes.
It is also important in audio production for the same reasons
Ribbon Microphones
The clarinet has large amounts of the third, fifth, and seventh harmonic, and less of the second fourth and sixth.
The trumpet has a large amount of the third harmonic and some from the second, fourth, and fifth along with the fundamental.
Harmonics are tones whose frequencies are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency of the wave. For example if an A is played at 440 Hz the frequencies of the harmonies will be 880Hz, 1320 Hz, and so on. The relative amplitude of these harmonics determine the timbre of the tone.
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