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Nationalism in early 20th century music
Transcript of Nationalism in early 20th century music
By Zyda, Brandon, Allie, Cassie & Callie
Elements that made American music nationalistic
American folk songs, popular tunes, multicultural characteristics, jazz music, holidays, landscape, etc.
Stew Pot of the world
different distinct qualities of each country but still work together and complement one another
Some immigrants are coming from poverty or political/war issues in their home country
During the World War & the Great Depression, composers created pieces help boost the morale of Americans.
Help remind people of what sets America apart from everyone else
United States in the early 20th-cent.
Mexico in the early 20th Century
1830's: folk tunes, dances
church music (Russian chant - Russian Orthodox)
similar to other nationalistic movements
The Russian Five
Russia in the 19th and 20thCenturies
What is Nationalism in music?
the use of musical ideas that are associated with a specific country, area, or ethnic group, such as: folk songs, rhythmic, melodic and harmonic characteristics.
Possible influences from 1900-1945:
World War I and II
Great Depression -United States
Rise and Fall in immigration - US
Mexican revolution (ca.1910-1920)
Francisco Madero against Porfirio Diaz (long standing politician)
Led to creation of
Partido Nacional Revolucionario
maintained power until the general elections of 2000
1920-30's strong effort to create strong sense of nationalism under new leadership in Mexico
Carlos Chavez (1899-1978)
Born in Mexico City
After the Mexican Revolution, Chavez became one of the first composers of Mexican nationalistic music that included ballets and classical forms with heavy references to Aztec traditions
Traditional Aztec Music and Music Example:
Drums were important to Aztec people. They were considered sacred instruments
Believed two gods have been banished to Earth in form of these drums
Rattles were also commonly used
Flutes of different types were very popular
Called huilacapitzili (wee-la-cop-eets-lee)
(An Imagined Aztec Music):
written in 1940
includes various instruments including full orchestra
Title refers to Aztec God of Art, Music, Dance and Beauty.
name literally translates to "Flower Prince" in Nahuatl
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
Russian-born American composer
Diaghilev: Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring
compositional style - timbres, chromaticism, blocks of music
neoclassicism (1910s-50s) - movement to revive pre-Romantic 18th-C music, Stravinsk was a prominent composer here
Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943)
Russian composer, conductor and pianist
Bridged gap between 19th and 20th-C
got into conservatory in St. Petersburg at age 10
Familial issues - deaths of siblings, parental neglect
Russian Rev. - lost estate, livelihood
Influence of Russian Revolution - went into exile, pieces reflect that time
Three Russian Songs, Op. 41
compositional style - Tchaikovsky, unpredictable melodic progess, passionate and expressive melodies
German music in the 20th-century
WWI - fault of Ottoman Empire (dissolved)
at the end, Germany was exceedingly broken and looked for someone to blame.
Nazis offered a solution
Nazi Regime in regards to music:
Restrictions placed on fine arts
struggle between censorship and creativity
3 pronged outlook on musicians
3 of the most nationalistic German composers according to Hitler & Goebbels were:
Ludwig van Beethoven,
Total Art Music (it has everything you need, similar to the Aryan Race)
Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
Examples in American Music
England- Early 20th-Century
Desired a distinct style of their own due to the previous dominance of foreign styles on England
influenced the musical renaissance of England
Revive English folk songs and English hymns
English composers worked to gain confidence in English music itself
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958)
His compositions were inspired from English folk songs, English hymns and early English composers
Thomas Tallis and Henry Purcell
The national trait was: involvement of British folk tunes and modal harmony of 16th-cent. English composers
Exploration and trade overseas was a major role. Sea songs were a contribution to the historics and culture.
Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (1910)
Quick March: Sea Songs
What is Nationalism?
A sense of identity and loyalty to an
Russian Revolution, change in music
The early 1920's Avant-garde, "revolutionary spirit", new trends in music
1930's - Joseph Stalin, music was forced to be contained with certain boundaries of content and innovation
Neoclassicism - broad movement from 1910s-50s where composers revived, imitated or evoked styles, genres & forms of pre-romantic music.
Firebird - based on Russian folk tunes
Rite of Spring - fertility rituals
Petrushka - ballet about a traditional Russian puppet coming to life
the "Petrushka chord"
What is nationalism to you?
What are some examples you can think of?
Write it on a sticky note and post to your side of the room's parking lot.
German Romantic / Modernist
composer, philosopher, and pedagog
Inspirations: Bach,Mozart, Beethoven, and Wagner
major works: Operas, orchestral works, and Tone poems
supporter of The Third Reich (at first), and supported by Hitler
lobbies for fair accommodations for musicians and Music Education
Olympic Hymn (1936)
Large orchestra (lots of brass)
a plea for forgiveness
Aaron Copland's Appalachian Spring:
Reiterated the beauty of America and the youthful desire for the heartland
Positive reinforcement, especially during the wars and the Great Depression
Charles Ives's Symphony: New England Holidays:
Characterizes specific holidays unique to America's culture: Washington's Birthday, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving and Memorial Day (all have historic significance)
Ives' Symphony No. 2:
Popular American tunes that people regularly heard and identified with were found in this piece
Tunes included: America the Beautiful, Camptown Races, etc.