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European Nations in the Age of Imperialism

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Meghan Hudson

on 5 December 2018

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Transcript of European Nations in the Age of Imperialism

Growth of socialism
Not Marxist
Did not push for revolution
Change by democratic means
Labour Party
Trade unions advocated for radical change of economic system
Collective ownership & control over production in steel factories
Minimum wage
Elected 29 members to the HoC in 1906
Liberals gained control of HoC in 1906
in favor of social reform
Liberals in Parliament
National Insurance Act (1911)
Benefits for workers who fall ill/unemployment
Small pension for retirees over 70
Worker's comp
David Lloyd George (1863-1945) led reform effort
Increased tax burden on the wealthy
Home rule for Ireland in 1914
Led to conflict amongst Irish Protestants in N.I. and Catholics in Ireland
Suspended w/ British involvement in WWI
"We have made Italy, now we must make Italians"
Sectional differences
Industrial north vs. agrarian & poverty-stricken south
Catholic Church refused to accept unification
Only 10% of pop. could vote (1880s)
Urban workers turned to violence
Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti passed reform granting universal male suffrage (1912)
Conquered Libya
The Third Republic
Est. in 1875; leg. elected by universal male suffrage
Dominated by bourgeoisie
Trade unions legalized
Dreyfus Affair (1894)
Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus found guilty of selling army secrets to Germans
Sentenced to life in prison
Evidence pointed to his innocence
Exonerated in 1906
Assimilation did not protect Jews from anti-Semitism
Zionist Movement
Third Republic, Cont.
Republicans wanted larger change
Army purged of all high-ranking officers against the gov't
Church weakened
Lagged behind Britain, Germany, and U.S. in industrial production
Legislation not enacted to reform poor working conditions
Gov't responded w/ brutal repression of labor walkouts
Downfall of Second Empire & Napoleon III after Franco-Prussian War (1870)
Temp gov't was established by republicans, but Bismarck intervened
French favored monarchists, gaining 400/630 seats in National Assembly
In response, republicans formed an independent gov't in Paris --> "Commune"
Defended by working class men and women
Gov't responded w/ violence
20,000 were shot, 10,000 sent to French penal colony
European Nations in the Age of Imperialism
After 1871, continued as authoritarian, conservative, military power state
Emperor William II (R. 1888-1918)
Unstable and aggressive
Strongest military and industrial power on the continent by 1914
Only 30% of workforce in agriculture
Social Democratic Party
Largest party in the Reichstag
Pan-German League
Stressed nationalism and advocated for imperialism
Full transcript